The Effect of the Dreamer Spiritual Therapies on Saliva Cortisol Hormone and Pain Score Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: A True-experimental Study


  • Iwan Purnawan Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Jenderal Soedirman University, Purwokerto, Indonesia; Doctoral Program in Medical and Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health, and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Sri Setiyarini Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia image/svg+xml
  • Probosuseno Probosuseno Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia image/svg+xml
  • Yunita Widyastuti Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia image/svg+xml



Critical patient, Cortisol, Post-operative pain, Stress, Psychological, Intensive care unit


BACKGROUND: Patients’ conditions can worsen if stress and pain are not appropriately managed. Conventional therapy ignores psychological and spiritual aspects. Both influence the body’s response to various stimuli.

AIM: This study aimed to assess how Dreamer’s spiritual therapy can affect the cortisol and pain in the intensive care unit (ICU) patients.

METHODS: It involved 86 ICU patients in a true-experimental study. Respondents were divided into the intervention and the control group randomly. The intervention group received Dreamer spiritual therapy (DST) for 30 min but not for the control group. Saliva samples and pain scores were taken from both groups before and after treatment. The comparison of two groups cortisol decreases using Wilcoxon test. Differences in pre- and post-pain scores in each group were analyzed using paired t-test.

RESULTS: According to Levene’s test, the two groups were homogeneous (p > 0.05). The Wilcoxon test revealed a statistically significant difference in cortisol level reduction between the intervention (3.88 ng/mL) and control (3.82 ng/ml) groups (p = 0.024), with a large effect size (Cohen’s d value = 59.5). The paired t-test revealed a statistically significant decrease in the intervention group’s pain score from 2.6 to 1.95 (p = 0.001), with a moderate effect size (Cohen’s d value = 0.49). The control group’s pain score did not significantly decrease (p = 0.75).

CONCLUSIONS: A DST is effective in reducing salivary cortisol levels and pain scores of ICU patients.


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How to Cite

Purnawan I, Setiyarini S, Probosuseno P, Widyastuti Y. The Effect of the Dreamer Spiritual Therapies on Saliva Cortisol Hormone and Pain Score Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: A True-experimental Study. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Dec. 1 [cited 2022 May 21];9(G):281-7. Available from:



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