Digestive System and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: New Era of Microbiome Study and Gastrointestinal Tract Manifestations during the Coronavirus Disease-19 Pandemic


  • Alibek Kossumov Centre for Life Science, National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7827-6697
  • Karakoz Mussabay Department of Microbiology and Virology Named After Sh.I. Sarbasova, Astana Medical University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
  • Astghik Pepoyan Department of Food Safety and Biotechnology, Armenian National Agrarian University, Yerevan, Armenia; International Association for Human and Animals Health Improvement, Yerevan, Armenia
  • Vardan Tsaturyan International Association for Human and Animals Health Improvement, Yerevan, Armenia; Chair of Field Therapy, Yerevan State Medical University, Yerevan, Armenia
  • Ketevan Sidamonidze Department of Virology, Molecular Biology and Genome Research Communicable Diseases, National Centre for Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, Georgia; Lugar Center for Public Health Research, Tbilisi, Georgia
  • David Tsereteli Communicable Diseases, National Centre for Disease Control and Public Health, Tbilisi, Georgia
  • Adil Supiyev Centre for Life Science, National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
  • Samat Kozhakhmetov Centre for Life Science, National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan; Kazakhstan Association of Human Microbiome Researchers, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
  • Laura Chulenbayeva Centre for Life Science, National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan; Kazakhstan Association of Human Microbiome Researchers, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
  • Marat Dusmagambetov Department of Microbiology and Virology Named After Sh.I. Sarbasova, Astana Medical University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
  • Massimo Pignatelli ReGenera R&D International for Aging Intervention, Milan, Italy
  • Zhaxybay Zhumadilov ReGenera R&D International for Aging Intervention, Milan, Italy
  • Francesco Marotta School of Medicine, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
  • Almagul Kushugulova Centre for Life Science, National Laboratory Astana, Nazarbayev University, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan; Kazakhstan Association of Human Microbiome Researchers, Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan




Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, Virus-host interaction, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor, Gut microbiome, Gastrointestinal tract, Probiotic


Main focuses of the review were that during the pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 were gastrointestinal disorders were accompanying.  Viral RNA and viral particles are found in feces for more than 30 days. Although SARS-CoV-2 primarily causes lung infection through binding to ACE2 receptors, intestinal epithelial cells, especially enterocytes of the small intestine, also express ACE2 receptors. It is also known that a respiratory viral infection causes disturbances in the gut microbiota. Diet, environmental factors, and genetics play an important role in the formation of gut microbiota, which can affect immunity. The diversity of gut microbiota diminishes in old age, and Covid-19 has been mostly fatal in older patients, further indicating the role that gut microbiota may play in this disease. It is therefore plausible that the gut microbiota could be a new therapeutic target and that probiotics could have a role in the management of these patients.


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How to Cite

Kossumov A, Mussabay K, Pepoyan A, Tsaturyan V, Sidamonidze K, Tsereteli D, Supiyev A, Kozhakhmetov S, Chulenbayeva L, Dusmagambetov M, Pignatelli M, Zhumadilov Z, Marotta F, Kushugulova A. Digestive System and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2: New Era of Microbiome Study and Gastrointestinal Tract Manifestations during the Coronavirus Disease-19 Pandemic. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Nov. 25 [cited 2024 May 26];9(F):676-82. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/7470



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