Influence of Antimicrobial Nanoparticles on Flexural Strength and Hardness of Polymethylmethacrylate


  • Mennatullah Khalil Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Fayoum University, Faiyum, Egypt
  • Lamis Enaba Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Misr International University, Cairo, Egypt



Polymethylmethacrylate, Flexural strength, Hardness, Graphene oxide nanosheets, Titanium dioxide nanoparticles, Curcumin-loaded graphene oxide nanosheets


BACKGROUND: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) is commonly used for dental appliances but has several shortcomings that could benefit from improvement with the use of nanoparticles (NPs).

AIM: The purpose of this study was to modify PMMA with three different antimicrobial NPs; Graphene oxide nanosheets (nGO), Titanium dioxide NPs (TiO2 NPs) and curcumin (CUR)-loaded graphene oxide nanosheets alone, and in combination and assess the flexural strength and hardness of the different groups.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The material used in this study was chemically cured PMMA that was modified with nGO, TiO2 NPs and GOCUR alone and in combination to give 6 groups; Group A: PMMA, Group B: PMMA with nGO, Group C: PMMA with TiO2 NPs, Group D: PMMA with TiO2 and GO NPs, Group E: PMMA with GOCUR, and Group F: PMMA with TiO2 NP, and GOCUR. The Six groups were tested for flexural strength and hardness. Statistical analysis was and data were expressed as means and standard deviation. Data was explored for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test of normality. The ANOVA test was used to compare between groups, followed by Bonferroni’s post hoc test for pairwise comparison. The significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05.

RESULTS: The highest flexural strength was recorded in Group C (52.26 ± 5.48 MPa) and the lowest value was in Group A (24.94 ± 5.37 MPa). The highest hardness was recorded in Group F (23.29 ± 0.8 HV) and the lowest value was in Group A (15.88 ± 1.02 HV).

CONCLUSION: The modification of PMMA with NPs with proven antimicrobial activity can increase the flexural strength and hardness of the material. GO, TiO2 and, GOCUR NPs were each used alone and in different combinations, and all the groups displayed higher flexural strength and hardness than the unmodified PMMA.


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How to Cite

Khalil M, Enaba L. Influence of Antimicrobial Nanoparticles on Flexural Strength and Hardness of Polymethylmethacrylate. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2021 Dec. 8 [cited 2023 May 31];9(D):314-8. Available from: