The Effectiveness of Emotional Freedom Technique on Public Speaking Anxiety in University Student: An Integrated Review
Keywords:Emotional freedom technique, Public speaking anxiety, Review, Student, Emotional Freedom Technique, Public Speaking Anxiety, Review, Student, Tapping
Public Speaking Anxiety is the most frequently feared condition among university student in academic activities. Emotional freedom technique has gained increased popularity and appears as a promising way to reduce emotional distress in different setting and populations. However, limited review has examining EFT treatment on public speaking anxiety. This integrative review was to examine the effectiveness of EFT programs on public speaking anxiety in university students. The review was carried out using the framework for integrated reviews obtained from Google Scholar, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Articles were included when reporting primary studies on the efficacy of EFT programs on public-speaking anxiety for university students in Bahasa Indonesia and English. The total of 5 were evaluated critically and included in the review. Two of the studies were undertaken in the United Kingdom, and one each in Australia, Turkey, and Indonesia. Two of the studies were randomized controlled, two used mixed methods, and one queasy experiment design. A majority of the interventions were able to reduce public speaking anxiety. This review shows that implementation of EFT, even within limited resources, is both achievable and worthwhile. EFT programs should be introduced early in the curriculum for university student in their first year of a Bachelor program
Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block
Ebrahimi O, Pallesen S, Kenter R, Nordgreen T. Psychological interventions for the fear of public speaking: A meta-analysis. Front Psychol. 2019;10:488. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00488 PMid:30930813 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00488
D’El Rey GJ, Pacini CA. Medo de Falar em Público em Uma Amostra da População: Prevalência, Impacto no Funcionamento Pessoal e Tratamento. Vol. 21. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa. Scielo; 2005. p. 237-42. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-37722005000200014
Pollard CA, Henderson JG. Four types of social phobia in a community sample. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1988;176(7):440-5. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198807000-00006 PMid:3411314 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198807000-00006
Heng CS, Abdullah AN, Yusof NB. Investigating the construct of anxiety in relation to speaking skills among ESL tertiary learners. 3L Lang Linguist Lit. 2012;18(3):155-61.
Bodie G. A racing heart, rattling knees, and ruminative thoughts: Defining, explaining, and treating public speaking anxiety. Commun Educ. 2010;59:70-105. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03634520903443849
Barlow DH. Anxiety and Its Disorders Second Edition The Nature and Treatment of Anxiety and Panic. New York: The Guildford Press; 2004.
Kushner M. Public Speaking For Dummies. USA: New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons; 2010.
Gary C. The EFT Manual by Craig 2nd. USA: Energy Psychology Press; 2011.
Gary C. The EFT Manual. Santa Rosa: Energy Psychology Press; 2008.
Feinstein D. Energy psychology: Efficacy, speed, mechanisms. Explore (NY). 2019;15(5):340-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2018.11.003. PMid:30718189 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2018.11.003
Bach D, Groesbeck G, Stapleton P, Sims R, Blickheuser K, Church D. Clinical EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) improves multiple physiological markers of health. J Evidence Based Integr Med. 2019;24:2515690X1882369. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515690X18823691. PMid:30777453 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/2515690X18823691
Rein G, Atkinson M, McCraty R. The physiological and psychological effects of compassion and anger. J Adv Med. 1995;8:87-105.
Bougea AM, Spandideas N, Alexopoulos EC, Thomaides T, Chrousos GP, Darviri C. Effect of the emotional freedom technique on perceived stress, quality of life, and cortisol salivary levels in tension-type headache sufferers: A randomized controlled trial. Explore (NY). 2013;9(2):91-9. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2012.12.005 PMid:23452711 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2012.12.005
Irmak Vural P, Aslan E. Emotional freedom techniques and breathing awareness to reduce childbirth fear: A randomized controlled study. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2019;35:224-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2019.02.011 PMid:31003663 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctcp.2019.02.011
Gilomen SA, Lee CW. The efficacy of acupoint stimulation in the treatment of psychological distress: A meta-analysis. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2015;48:140-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.03.012 PMid:25863484 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2015.03.012
Clond M. Emotional freedom techniques for anxiety: A systematic review with meta-analysis. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2016;204(5):388-95. https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000483 PMid:26894319 Available from: https://journals.lww.com/jonmd/Fulltext/2016/05000/Emotional_Freedom_Techniques_for_Anxiety__A.9.aspx [Last accessed 2022 Jan 13]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0000000000000483
Whittemore R, Knafl K. The integrative review: Updated methodology. J Adv Nurs. 2005;52(5):546-53. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03621.x PMid:16268861 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03621.x
Law M, Stewart D, Pollock N, Letts L, Bosch J, Westmorland M. Guidelines for Critical Review form, Quantitative Studies; 1998. Available from: https://srs-mcmaster.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/Guidelines-for-Critical- Review-Form-Quantitative-Studies.pdf [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 18].
Boath E, Stewart A, Carryer A. Tapping for success: A pilot study to explore if Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) can reduce anxiety and enhance academic performance in University students. Tapping success A Pilot study to Explor if Emot Free Tech can reduce anxiety Enhanc Acad Perform Univ students. 2013;1(3):1-13.
Madoni E, Eddy M, Japar M. Group counselling with systematic desensitization and emotional freedom techniques to reduce public speaking anxiety. J Bimbing Konseling 2018;7: 1-7.
Dincer B, Özçelik SK, Özer Z, Bahçecik N. Breathing therapy and emotional freedom techniques on public speaking anxiety in Turkish nursing students: A randomized controlled study. Explore. 2020;18:226-33. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2020.11.006 PMid:33309466 Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550830720303761. [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 13]. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2020.11.006
Boath E, Good R, Tsaroucha A, Stewart T, Pitch S, Boughey AJ. Tapping your way to success: Using Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) to reduce anxiety and improve communication skills in social work students. Soc Work Educ. 2017;36(6):715-30. https://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2017.1297394 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/02615479.2017.1297394
Patterson SL. The effect of emotional freedom technique on stress and anxiety in nursing students: A pilot study. Nurse Educ Today. 2016;40:104-10. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2016.02.003 PMid:27125158 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.02.003
Reynolds AE. Is Acupoint Stimulation an Active Ingredient in Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT)? A Controlled Trial of Teacher Burnout; 2015. DOI: https://doi.org/10.9769/EPJ.2015.05.01.AR
Aaronson C, Shear K, Goetz R, Payne L, David B, White K, et al. Predictors and time course of response among panic disorder patients treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy. J Clin Psychiatry. 2008;69(3):418-24. https://doi.org/10.4088/jcp.v69n0312. PMid:18278989 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v69n0312
Church D, Sparks T, Clond M. EFT (Emotional Freedom Techniques) and resiliency in veterans at risk for PTSD: A randomized controlled trial. Explore. 2016;12(5):355-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2016.06.012 PMid:27543343 Available from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1550830716300799. [Last accessed on 2022 Jan 13] DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2016.06.012
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Nenden Lesmana Wati, Tukimin Bin Sansuwito, Dwiagung Riyanto, Agus Sustiyono, Fifi Musfirowati (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.