The Risk Factors of Obesity in Children during COVID-19 Pandemic Era in Gorontalo City

Authors

  • Irwan Irwan Department of Public Health, Faculty of Sports and Health, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6533-3824
  • Yasir Mokodompis Department of Public Health, Faculty of Sports and Health, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia
  • Nur Ayini S lalu Department of Public Health, Faculty of Sports and Health, Universitas Negeri Gorontalo, Gorontalo, Indonesia
  • Anwar Mallongi Department of Environmental Health, Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2022.7922

Keywords:

COVID-19, Obesity, Adolescents, Children

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a condition that is often associated with an increased risk of infection for coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19, which can be fatal or even cause death.

AIM: The study aimed to analyze the risk factors of obesity incidents in children during COVID-19 pandemic era in Gorontalo City.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The risk factors for obesity include physical activity, history of obesity, fast food consumption, sleep duration at night, and breakfast. It applied analytical observational research with a case–control study design, matching the gender and age. The case was students when measured with a body mass index (BMI) equal to or above 25 kg/m2, while the control was student when measured with a BMI of 18.5–22.9 kg/m2. At the same time, the numbers of samples were 150 children in which the sampling was carried out non-random by applying purposive sampling technique.

RESULTS: Finding denoted that all the variables examined significantly correlated with obesity incidents during COVID-19 pandemic, with odds ratio (OR) value was <1. Specifically, the physical activity variable had the highest OR value compared to other variables, namely, OR 2.939, and this meant that adolescents who do not exercise or exercise <3 times a week during the COVID-19 period were at 2.939 times risk compared to adolescents who exercise 3 times a week.

CONCLUSION: The finding of this study concluded that in the COVID-19 pandemic era, physical activity or exercise is the most influential risk factor for the incidence of obesity compared to other variables.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

References

Li X, Xu S, Yu M, Wang K, Tao Y, Zhou Y, et al. Risk factors for severity and mortality in adult COVID-19 inpatients in

Wuhan. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020;146(1):110-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.04.006 PMid:32294485 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.04.006

Du RH, Liang LR, Yang CQ, Wang W, Cao TZ, Li M, et al. Predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2: A prospective cohort study. Eur Respir J. 2020;55(5):2000524. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00524-2020 PMid:32269088 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00524-2020

Viner RM, White B, Barrett T, Candy DC, Gibson P, Gregory JW, et al. Assessment of childhood obesity in secondary care: OSCA consensus statement. Arch Dis Child Educ Pract Ed. 2012;97(3):98-105. https://doi.org/10.1136/edpract-2011-301426 PMid:22611124 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/edpract-2011-301426

Li M, Dibley MJ, Sibbritt D, Yan H. Factors associated with adolescents’ overweight and obesity at community, school and household levels in Xi’an City, China: Results of hierarchical analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008;62(5):635-43. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602757 PMid:17440524 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602757

Huang Y, Lu Y, Huang YM, Wang M, Ling W, Sui Y, et al. Obesity in patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Metabolism. 2020;113:154378. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154378 PMid:33002478 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154378

Hussain A, Mahawar K, Xia Z, Yang W, El-Hasani S. Obesity and mortality of COVID-19: Meta-analysis. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2020;14(4):295-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2020.07.002 PMid:32660813 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2020.07.002

Weiss R, Dziura J, Burgert TS, Tamborlane WV, Taksali SE, Yeckel CW, et.al. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(23):2362-74. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa031049 PMid:15175438 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa031049

Sattar N, McInnes IB, McMurray JJ. Obesity is a risk factor for severe COVID-19 infection. Multiple potential mechanisms. Circulation. 2020;142(1):4-6. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047659 PMid:32320270 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.047659

Mallongi A, Daud A, Ishak H, La Ane R, Birawida AB, Ibrahim E, et al. Clean water treatment technology with an up-flow slow sand filtration system from a well water source in the Tallo district of Makassar. J Environ Sci Technol. 2017;10(1):44-8. https://doi.org/10.3923/jest.2017.44.48 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/jest.2017.44.48

Mallongi A, Stang S, Rauf AU, Astuti RD. Estimated weekly intake and potential target hazard risks of exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5) among communities living near Bosowa cement industry, Indonesia. Rev Int Geogr Educ. 2021;11(7):2259-70. https://doi.org/10.48047/rigeo.11.07.204

Awal M, Amiruddin R, Palutturi S, Mallongi A. relationships between lifestyle models with stroke occurrence in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Asian J Epidemiol. 2017;10:83-8. https://doi.org/10.3923/aje.2017.83.88 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/aje.2017.83.88

Posmaningsih DA, Aryasih GA, Hadi MC, Marwati NM, Mallongi A. The influence of media booklet in behavior change of waste management in elementary school students, South Denpasar, Bali. Indian J Public Health Res Dev. 2018;9(8):1506-11. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2018.00946.4 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2018.00946.4

Mokodompis Y, Ahmad ZF. Evaluation of compliance with the implementation of health protocols in public places during the Covid-19 pandemic in Gorontalo District. Jambura J Health Sci Res. 2021;3(2):285-95. https://doi.org/10.35971/Jjhsr.V3i2.10490. DOI: https://doi.org/10.35971/jjhsr.v3i2.10490

Irwan I, Ahmad F, Bialangi S. Relationship of family history and sedentary behavior to the incidence of diabetes mellitus.

Jambura J Health Sci Res. 2021;3(1):103-14. https://doi.org/10.35971/jjhsr.v3i1.7075 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35971/jjhsr.v3i1.7075

Irwan I, Lalu NS. Provision of modification PMT to nutritional children and stunting toddlers. J Pengabdian Kesehatan Masyarakat. 2020;1(1):38-54. https://doi.org/10.37905/jpkm.v1i1.7731 DOI: https://doi.org/10.37905/jpkm.v1i1.7731

Azhari Z, Ismail MD, Zuhdi AS, Md Sari N, Abidin IZ, Ahmad WA. Association between body mass index and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention in multiethnic South East Asian population: A retrospective analysis of the Malaysian national cardiovascular disease database-percutaneous coronary intervention (NCVD-PCI) registry. BMJ Open. 2017;7(11):e017794. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017794 PMid:29127228 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017794

Reedy J, Krebs-Smith SM. Dietary sources of energy, solid fats, and added sugars among children and adolescents in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110(10):1477-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2010.07.010 PMid:20869486 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2010.07.010

Mallongi A, Syamsuar S, Natsir MF, Astuti RD, Rauf AU. Potential ecological risks of mercury contamination along communities area in tonasa cement industry Pangkep, Indonesia. Enferm Clin. 2020;30(4):119-22 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.10.054 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.10.054

Masriadi M, Azis R, Sumantri E, Mallongi A. Effectiveness of non pharmacologic therapy through surveillance approach to blood pressure degradation in primary hypertension patients, Indonesia. Indian J Public Health Res Dev. 2018;9(4):249-55. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2018.00292.9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2018.00292.9

Muhith A, Winarti E, Perdana SS, Haryuni S, Rahayu KI, Mallongi A. Internal locus of control as a driving factor of early detaction behavior of servical cancer by inspection visual of acetic acid method. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2020;8(E):113-6. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2020.4341 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2020.4341

Bigarella LG, Ballardin AC, Couto LS, de Ávila AC, Ballotin VR, Ingracio AR. The impact of obesity on plastic surgery outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Aesthet Surg J. 2022;42(7):795-807. https://doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjab397 PMid:35037936 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjab397

Kassir R. Risk of COVID-19 for patients with obesity. Obes Rev. 2020;21(6):e13034. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.13034 PMid:32281287 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.13034

Maier HE, Lopez R, Sanchez N, Ng S, Gresh L, Ojeda S, et al. Obesity increases the duration of influenza a virus shedding in adults. J Infect Dis. 2018;218(9):1378-82. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy370 PMid:30085119 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiy370

Petrilli CM, Jones SA, Yang J, Rajagopalan H, O’Donnell L, Chernyak Y, et al. Factors associated with hospital admission and critical illness among 5279 people with coronavirus disease 2019 in New York city: Prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2020;369:m1966. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1966 PMid:32444366 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1966

Budu-Aggrey A, Brumpton B, Tyrrell J, Watkins S, Modalsli EH, Celis-Morales C, et al. Evidence of a causal relationship

between body mass index and psoriasis: A mendelian randomization study. PLoS Med. 2019;16(1):e1002739. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002739 PMid:30703100 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002739

Abudi R, Irwan I. Analysis of risk factors for obesity in adolescents in Gorontalo. J Health Sci. 2018;2(2):263-73. https://doi.org/10.35971/gojhes.v2i2.5270 DOI: https://doi.org/10.35971/gojhes.v2i2.5270

Setyaningrum S. The importance of exercise during the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Biomedican Dan Kesehatan. 2020;3(4):166-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.18051/JBiomedKes.2020.v3.166-168

Pries AM, Filteau S, Ferguson EL. Snack food and beverage consumption and young child nutrition in low‐and middle‐income countries: A systematic review. Matern Child Nutr. 2019;15 Suppl 4(Suppl 4):e12729. https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12729 PMid:31225715 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/mcn.12729

Blair PS, Humphreys JS, Gringras P, Taheri S, Scott N, Emond A, et.al. Childhood sleep duration and associated demographic characteristics in an english cohort. Sleep. 2012;35(3):353-60. https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.1694 PMid:22379241 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.1694

Mallick N, Ray S, Mukhopadhyay S. Eating behaviours and body weight concerns among adolescent girls. Adv Public Health. 2014;2014(2):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/257396 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/257396

Ruan Q, Yang K, Wang W, Jiang L, Song J. Clinical predictors of mortality due to COVID-19 based on an analysis of data of 150 patients from Wuhan, China. Intensive Care Med. 2020;46(6):1294-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06028-z PMid:32253449 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00134-020-06028-z

Galioto R, Spitznagel MB. The effects of breakfast and breakfast composition on cognition in adults. Adv Nutr. 2016;7(3):576S-89. https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.010231 PMid:27184286 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3945/an.115.010231

Ventura EE, Goran MI. Obesity epidemiology. Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169(10):1277. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwp057 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwp057

Grasselli G, Zangrillo A, Zanella A, Antonelli M, Cabrini L, Castelli A, et al. Baseline characteristics and outcomes of 1591 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 admitted to ICUs of the Lombardy Region, Italy. JAMA. 2020;323(16):1574-81. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.5394 PMid:32250385 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.4031

Hasmi A, Mallongi A. Health risk analysis of lead exposure from fish consumption among communities along Youtefa Gulf, Jayapura. Pak J Nutr. 2016;15(10):929-35. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2016.929.935 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3923/pjn.2016.929.935

Kayame R, Mallongi A. Relationships between smoking habits and the hypertension occurrence among the adults of communities in Paniai regency, Papua Indonesia. Indian J Public Health Res Dev. 2018;9(1):332-6. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2018.00061.X DOI: https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2018.00061.X

Green WD, Beck MA. Obesity impairs the adaptive immune response to influenza virus. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017;14(suppl 5):S406-9. https://doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201706-447AW PMid:29161078 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.201706-447AW

Downloads

Published

2022-12-26

How to Cite

1.
Irwan I, Mokodompis Y, Ayini S lalu N, Mallongi A. The Risk Factors of Obesity in Children during COVID-19 Pandemic Era in Gorontalo City. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Dec. 26 [cited 2024 Apr. 23];10(E):1892-7. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/7922

Issue

Section

Public Health Education and Training

Categories

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>