Profile of Histopathological Type and Molecular Subtypes of Mammary Cancer of DMBA-induced Rat and its Relevancy to Human Breast Cancer


  • Ika Fidianingsih Doctoral Program, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Teguh Aryandono Department of Surgery, Oncology Division, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Sitarina Widyarini Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Sri Herwiyanti Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia



7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene, Estrogen receptor, Progesterone receptor, Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, Ki67


BACKGROUND: Animal models with mammary cancer that closely mimic human breast cancer for treatment development purposes are still required. Induction of 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) to rats shows the histopathological features and mammary cancer characterization similar to humans. Examinations of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67 expressions are crucial in deciding the treatment and prognosis of breast cancer.

AIM: This research aimed to view histopathology images of mammary glands and expressions of ER, PR, Ki67, and HER2 of DMBA-induced rats.

METHODS: After 1-week adaptation, 11 5-weeks-old female rats were induced with 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) of DMBA 2 times a week for 5 weeks. On week 29, nodules taken from the mammary gland were examined for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry with p63, ER, PR, HER2, and Ki67 antibodies. The grading score used the Nottingham Grading System and molecular classifications based on St. Gallen 2013.

RESULTS: Six rats had nodules, but the histopathologic features of one nodule showed normal mammary gland without cancer. The histopathological type of mammary cancer was cribriform carcinoma, comedo carcinoma, lipid-rich carcinoma, adenocarcinoma squamous, and adenomyepithelioma. Histopathological grading showed 60% of grade 3 and 40% of grade 2. P63 expression showed 60% positive and 40% negative. The frequency of ER, PR, HER2, and Ki67 of five nodules showed positivity: 40%, 60%, 60%, and 60%, respectively. Molecular subtypes of Luminal A, B, HER2, and triple-negative were 0%, 60%, 20%, and 20%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Histopathological features and molecular subtype of mammary cancer on rats induced with 20 mg/kg BW of DMBA showed similarity to human breast cancer.


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How to Cite

Fidianingsih I, Aryandono T, Widyarini S, Herwiyanti S. Profile of Histopathological Type and Molecular Subtypes of Mammary Cancer of DMBA-induced Rat and its Relevancy to Human Breast Cancer. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 18 [cited 2023 Mar. 28];10(A):71-8. Available from:

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