The Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Chitosan and Polysaccharide of Durian Peel Extract against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates


  • Yusup Subagio Sutanto Pulmonary Disease Study Program, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University of Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Agnes Sri Harti Department of Nursing, Kusuma Husada University of Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Magdalena Sutanto District General Hospital of Surakarta City, Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Nony Puspawati Departement of Medical Laboratory Technical Analyst, Setia Budi University of Surakarta, Surakarta, Indonesia



Anti-microbial, Chitosan, Durian peel extract, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Isolates


BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) disease is an infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is transmitted through sputum droplets of sufferers or suspect TB in the air. Chitosan as an antimicrobial agent can be used in the biomedical field because it has a number of hydroxyl groups (OH) and amine groups (NH2). The chemical substance of durian peel extract (Durio zibethinus L.) contains pectin which is multifunctional and can be used in the pharmaceutical field. Chemically, pectin is a polysaccharide polymer of D-galacturonic acid linked by -1,4 glycosidic bonds which can dissolve in water to form colloidal solutions or gels.

AIM: This study was to determine the antimicrobial effectiveness of chitosan and polysaccharides from durian peel extract (D. zibethinus L.) against M. tuberculosis isolates in vitro.

METHODS: The research method is based on an experimental study in vitro. M. tuberculosis isolates in this research from sputum samples of patients suspected of TB in Surakarta Regional General Hospital. The stages of the research were performed that preparation chitosan gel (CG), bioformulation of CG, and polysaccharide gel (PG) durian peel extract are 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%, and drug susceptibility testing against M. tuberculosis isolates.

RESULTS: CG 10% was effective as an antimicrobial against M. tuberculosis isolates but PG durian peel extract (5%; 10%; 15%; 20%; and 25%) was not effective as an antimicrobial against M. tuberculosis isolates. The types of anti-tuberculosis drug (ATD) that was effective against M. tuberculosis isolates were ethambutol 80% and streptomycin 40%, while isoniazid and rifampicin were not effective as ATD against M. tuberculosis isolates.

CONCLUSION: CG 10% was effective as an antimicrobial against M. tuberculosis isolates, while PG 25% durian peel extract was not effective as an antimicrobial against M. tuberculosis isolates. CG has the potential as an ATD based on natural bioactive ingredients for TB therapy.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Migliori GB, Simon T, Alimuddin Z, Eskild P, Jeremiah MC, Christian W, et al. MDR/XDR-TB management of patient and contacs: Challenges faacing the new decade. The 2020 clinical update by the global tuberculosis network. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;92:S15-25. PMid:32032752 DOI:

Sutanto YS, Sutanto M, Harti AS, Puspawati N. The sensitivity test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to snail seromucoid and chitosan in vitro. Biomedika. 2021;14(1):36-46. DOI:

Dai T, Tanaka M, Huang YY, Hamblin MR. Chitosan preparations for wounds and burns: antimicrobial and wound-healing effects. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2013;9(7):857-79. PMid:21810057 DOI:

Rejane CG, Douglas DB, Odilio BG. A review of the antimicrobial activity of chitosan. Polímeros. 2009;19(3):241-7. DOI:

Rajasree R, Rahate KP. An overview on various modifications of Chitosan and it’s applications. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2013;4(11):4175-93.

Martins AF, Facchi SP, Follmann HD, Pereira AG, Rubira AF, Muniz EC. Antimicrobial activity of chitosan derivatives containing N-quaternized moieties in its backbone: A review. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15(11):20800-32. PMid:25402643 DOI:

Tripathi K, Singh A. Chitin, chitosan and their pharmacological activities: A review. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2018;9(7):2626-35. DOI:

Kumoro AC, Alhanif M, Wardhani DH. A critical review on tropical fruits seeds as prospective sources of nutritional and bioactive compounds for functional foods development: A case of Indonesian exotic fruits. Int J Food Sci. 2020;2020:4051475. PMid:32258095 DOI:

Hasem NH, Fuzi SF, Kormin F, Bakar MF, Sabran SF. Extraction and Partial Characterization of Durian Rind Pectin. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science 269. Johor Darul Takzim, Malaysia: IOP Publishing, International Conference on Biodiversity 11-13 November; 2019. DOI:

Pongsamart S, Sukrong S, Tawatsin A. The dertermination of toxic effects at a high oral dose of polysaccharide gel extracts from fruit-hulls of durian (Durio zibethinus L.) in mice and rats. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol. 2001;23(1):53-62.

Ho LH, Bhat R. Exploring the potential nutraceutical values of durian (Durio zibethinus L.) an exotic tropical fruit. Food Chem. 2014;168:80-9. PMid:25172686 DOI:

Khoo HE, Azlan A, Kong KW, Ismail A. Phytochemicals and medicinal properties of indigenous tropical fruits with potential for commercial development. Evid Based Complement Altern Med. 2016;2016:7591951. PMid:27340420 DOI:

Mariana DF, Dayana CR, Maria HG, Carmen LD, Alessandro N, Gilvan W. Chemical and instrumental characterization of pectin from dried pomace of eleven apple cultivars. Acta Sci Agron Mar. 2011;33(3):383-9. DOI:

Waranee P, Korakot N, Puntita S, Kittisak B, Maslin O, Siriwadee C. In vitro effects of polysaccharide gel extracted from durian rinds (Durio zibethinus L.) on the enzymatic activities of MMP-2, MMP-3 and MMP-9 in canine chondrocyte culture. Int J Biosci Biochem Bioinform. 2012;2(3):151-4. DOI:

Huntington Medical Research Institutes. Tuberculosis. Jakarta, Indonesia: Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia; 2018.

Raafat D, Von BK, Haas A, Sahl HG. Insights into the mode of action of chitosan as an antibacterial. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74(12):3764-73. PMid:18456858 DOI:

Harti AS, Kusumawati HN, Siswiyanti S, Setyaningtyas A. In vitro synergistics effects of snail slime and chitosan against Staphylococcus aureus. Int J Pharm Med Biol Sci. 2016;5(2):137-41.

Harti AS, Sulisetyawati SD, Murharyati A, Oktariani M, Wijayanti IB. The effectiveness of snail slime and chitosan in wound healing. Int J Pharm Med Biol Sci. 2016;5(1):76-80.

Sutanto YS, Sutanto M, Harti AS, Puspawati N. The sensitivity test of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from suspect tuberculosis patients to the seromucous of snail and chitosan as an alternative anti-tuberculosis drugs. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2020;13(10):44-9. DOI:

Sahariah P, Gaware VS, Lieder R, Jónsdóttir S, Hjálmarsdóttir MÁ, Sigurjonsson OE, et al. The effect of substituent, degree of acetylation and positioning of the cationic charge on the antibacterial activity of quaternary chitosan derivatives. Mar Drugs. 2014;12(8):4635-58. PMid:25196937 DOI:

Jarmila V, Vavríková E. Chitosan derivatives with antimicrobial, antitumour and antioxidant activities--a review. Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17(32):3596-607. PMid:22074429 DOI:

Kerch G. The potential of chitosan and its derivatives in prevention and treatment of age-related diseases. Mar Drugs. 2015;13(4):2158-82. PMid:25871293 DOI:

Kheri R, Agrawal J. Chitosan as classic biopolymer: A review. Int J Pharm Life Sci. 2010;1(7):369-72.

Haruenkeit R, Poovarodom S, Vearasilp S, Namiesnik J, Sliwka-Kaszynka M, Ysea P. Comparison of bioactive compounds, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of mon thong durian during ripening. Food Chem. 2010;118(3):540-7. DOI:

Hokputsa S, Gerddit W, Pongsamart S, Inngjerdingen K, Heinze T, Koschella A, et al. Water-soluble polysaccharides with pharmaceutical importance from Durian rinds (Durio zibethinus Murr.): Isolation, fractionation, characterisation and bioactivity. Carbohydr Polym. 2004;56(4):471-81. DOI:

Husin NA, Rahman S, Karunakaran R, Bhore SJ. A review on the nutritional, medicinal, molecular and genome attributes of Durian (Durio zibethinus L.), the King of fruits in Malaysia. Bioinformation. 2018;14(6):265-70. DOI:

Aziz AN, Jalil MA. Bioactive compounds, nutritional value, and potential health benefits of indigenous durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.): A review. Foods. 2019;8(3):96. PMid:30871187 DOI:

Lipipun V, Nantawanit N, Pongsamart S. Antimicrobial activity (in vitro) of polysaccharide gel from durian fruit-hulls. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol. 2002;24(1):31-8.

Leverett JC, Chandra A, Rana J, Fast DJ, Missler SR, Flower DM. Extracts of Durian Fruit for Use in Skin Care Compositions. US Patent Application 2007:No. 11/655,015.

Pandey A, Tripathi S. Concept of standardization, extraction and pre phytochemical screening strategies for herbal drug. J Pharmocogn Phytochem. 2014;2(5):115-9.

Sah BP, Pathak T, Sankar S, Suresh B. Phytochemical investigations on the fruits of Durio zibenthinus Linn. for antimicrobial activity. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2014;5(12):878-91.

Jamal KP, Muhaimin M, Fitrianingsih F. Antibacterial activities of ethanol extracts of durian fruit skin (Durio zibethinus Murr.) on Salmonella bacteria in ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 cause of diarrhea. Indones J Pharm Sci. 2019;1(1):1-6.

Arlofa N, Ismiyati I, Kosasih M, Nurul HF. Effectiveness of durian peel extract as a natural anti-bacterial agent. J Chem Eng Environ. 2019;14(2):163-70. DOI:

Muhtadi M, Haryoto H, Tanti A, Suhendi A. Antidiabetic and antihypercholesterolemia activities of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) and Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) Fruit peel extracts. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2016;6(4):190-4. DOI:

Muhtadi M, Ningrum U. Standardization of durian fruit peels (Durio zibethinus Murr.) extract and antioxidant activity using DPPH method. Pharmaciana. 2019;9(2):271-82. DOI:

Harti AS, Murharyati A, Sulisetyawati SD, Oktariani M. The effectiveness of snail mucus (Achatina fulica) and chitosan toward limfosit proliferation in vitro. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2018;11(15):85-8. DOI:

Vilchèze C, Hartman T, Weinrick B, Jacobs WR. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is extraordinarily sensitive to killing by a Vitamin C-induced Fenton reaction. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1881. PMid:23695675 DOI:

Wu X, Yang J, Gea T. Drug resistance characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from patients with tuberculosis to 12 antituberculous drugs in China. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2019;9:345. PMid:31828045 DOI:




How to Cite

Sutanto YS, Harti AS, Sutanto M, Puspawati N. The Antimicrobial Effectiveness of Chitosan and Polysaccharide of Durian Peel Extract against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 6 [cited 2023 Mar. 28];10(A):326-33. Available from: