The Role of Banana (Musa balbisiana Colla) Peel Floss as Functional Food Matrix to Alleviate Chronic Stress


  • Andreanyta Meliala Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Farmako Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Paramita Narwidina Clinical Nutrition Research Group, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Irwan Supriyanto Departement of Psychiatry, FM-PHN, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Farmako Sekip Utara, Sleman, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Yogi Tri Sumarno Undergraduate Program in School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Yanasta Yudo Pratama Master Program of Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Rian Damayanti Master Program of Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Farmako, Sekip Utara, Yogyakarta, Indonesia



Banana peel, Floss, Chronic mild stress, Tryptophan, Dietary fiber, Antioxidant


BACKGROUND: Banana peel (Musa balbisiana Colla) already has a diverse variety of nutritional benefits, but its perishable nature necessitates additional food processing, one of which is banana peel floss.

AIM: The objective of this study was to examine the antidepressant effects of banana peel floss in experimental animals subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS) for 6 weeks.

METHODS: Animals were randomly assigned into five groups. The first group was fed a control diet without CMS as a negative control. The other four groups were exposed to CMS and fed a control diet as a positive control, with three of the five groups fed a control diet supplemented with 15%, 30%, and 60% banana peel floss. The tail suspension test (TST) and the Morris water maze were used as behavioral parameters in this study (MWM). Cortisol and serotonin levels were measured in two stages: after CMS exposure or before banana peel floss intervention, and after 4 weeks of banana peel floss intervention.

RESULTS: The results showed that the immobility time in TST and escape latency in the MWM test were significantly reduced in the groups supplemented with 15% and 30% banana peel floss, respectively. Furthermore, we observed a significant association between serotonin and cortisol levels and also between the duration of immobility time in TST and serotonin levels.

CONCLUSIONS: The administration of banana peel floss caused significant changes in plasma serotonin concentrations, implying that the presence of dietary fiber, tryptophan, and bioactive components in banana peel floss can reduce stress-induced depression by regulating cortisol levels and increasing serotonin levels.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Bishwajit G, Leary DP, Ghosh S, Sanni Y, Shangfeng T, Zhanchun F. Association between depression and fruit and vegetable consumption among adults in South Asia. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):15. PMid:28088202 DOI:

Steinberg LJ, Rubin-Falcone H, Galfalvy HC, Kaufman J, Miller JM, Sublette ME, et al. Cortisol stress response and in vivo pet imaging of human brain serotonin 1A receptor binding. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2019;22(5):329-38. PMid:30927011 DOI:

Santymire RM, Manjerovic MB, Sacerdote-Velat A. A novel method for the measurement of glucocorticoids in dermal secretions of amphibians. Conserv Physiol. 2018;6(1):coy008. PMid:29479435 DOI:

Ehiaghe FA, Digban KA, Ehiaghe IJ. Effect of stress of examination on serum cortisol level and cd4 cell count in male undergraduates at Igbinedion University, Nigeria. African J Cell Pathol. 2014;2(1):19-23. DOI:

Badawy AA. Modulation of tryptophan and serotonin metabolism as a biochemical basis of the behavioral effects of use and withdrawal of androgenic-anabolic steroids and other image-and performance-enhancing agents. Int J Tryptophan Res. 2018;11:1178646917753422. PMid:29487480 DOI:

Prete A, Taylor AE, Bancos I, Smith DJ, Foster MA, Kohler S, et al. Prevention of adrenal crisis: Cortisol responses to major stress compared to stress dose hydrocortisone delivery. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2020;105(7):2262-74. PMid:32170323 DOI:

Bell IR, Edman JS, Morrow FD, Marby DW, Mirages S, Perrone G, et al. B Complex vitamin patterns in geriatric and young adult inpatients with major depression. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1991;39(3):252-7. PMid:2005338 DOI:

Young SN. Folate and depression: A neglected problem. J Psychiatry Neurosci. 2007;32(2):80-2. PMid:17353937

Kim DO, Lee KW, Lee HJ, Lee CY. Vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC) of phenolic phytochemicals. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50(13):3713-7. PMid:12059148 DOI:

Swann OG, Kilpatrick M, Breslin M, Oddy WH. Dietary fiber and its associations with depression and inflammation. Nutr Rev. 2020;78(5):394-411. PMid:31750916 DOI:

Rao TS, Asha MR, Ramesh BN, Rao KS. Understanding nutrition, depression and mental illnesses. Indian J Psychiatry. 2008;50(2):77-82. PMid:19742217 DOI:

Rayne S. Concentrations and profiles of melatonin and serotonin in fruits and vegetables during ripening: A mini-review. Nat Preced. 2010;4722. DOI:

Ittiyavirah S, Anurenj DA. Adaptogenic studies of acetone extract of Musa paradisiaca L. Fruit peels in albino Wistar rats. Int J Nutr Pharmacol Neurol Dis. 2014;4(2):88-94. DOI:

Jenkins TA, Nguyen JC, Polglaze KE, Bertrand PP. Influence of tryptophan and serotonin on mood and cognition with a possible role of the gut-brain axis. Nutrients. 2016;8(1):56. PMid:26805875 DOI:

Tobaruela EC, O Santos AO, de Almeida-Muradian LB, Araujo ED, Lajolo FM, Menezes EW. Application of dietary fiber method AOAC 2011.25 in fruit and comparison with AOAC 991.43 method. Food Chem. 2018;238:87-93. PMid:28867106 DOI:

Atanassova M, Christova-Bagdassaria V. Determination of tannins content by titrimetric method for comparison of different plant species. J Univ Chem Technol Metall. 2009;44(4):413-5.

Allred MC, MacDonald JL. Determination of sulfur amino acids and tryptophan in foods and food and feed ingredients: Collaborative study. J Assoc Off Anal Chem. 1988;71(3):603-6. PMid:3391969 DOI:

Gáll Z, Farkas S, Albert Á, Ferencz E, Vancea S, Urkon M, et al. Effects of chronic cannabidiol treatment in the rat chronic unpredictable mild stress model of depression. Biomolecules. 2020;10(5):801. PMid:32455953 DOI:

Omotola MB, Adeosun IO, Obuotor EM, Akomolafe RO, Ayannuga OA. Assessment of the effects of graded doses of polyphenolic-rich fraction of Garcinia kola seeds on pituitary-Testicular axis of male wistar rats. Dose Response. 2017;15(4):1559325817729260. PMid:29051716 DOI:

Yan T, He B, Wan S, Xu M, Yang H, Xiao F, et al. Antidepressantlike effects and cognitive enhancement of Schisandra chinensis in chronic unpredictable mild stress mice and its related mechanism. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):6903. PMid:28761074 DOI:

Lam V, Takechi R, Albrecht MA, D’Alonzo ZJ, Graneri L, Hackett MJ, et al. Longitudinal performance of senescence accelerated mouse prone-strain 8 (SAMP8) mice in an olfactory-visual water maze challenge. Front Behav Neurosci. 2018;12:174. PMid:30210312 DOI:

Hermawati ER, Arfian NU, Mustofa M, Partadiredja G. Spatial memory disturbance following transient brain ischemia is associated with vascular remodeling in hippocampus. Kobe J Med Sci. 2018;64(3):E93-106. PMid:30666039

Zhua WL, Shia HS, Weic YM, Wanga SJ, Suna CY, Dinga ZB, et al. Green tea polyphenols produce antidepressant-like effects in adult mice. Pharmacol Res. 2012;65(1):74-80. PMid:21964320 DOI:

Akkol EK, Dereli FT, Ilhan M. Assessment of antidepressant effect of the aerial parts of Micromeria myrtifolia Boiss. And Hohen on mice. Molecules. 2019;24(10):1869. PMid:31096603 DOI:

Aslam M. Tail suspension test to evaluate the antidepressant activity of experimental drugs. Bangladesh J Pharmacol. 2016;11(2):292-4. DOI:

Donovan J, Brown P. Blood collection. Curr Protoc Neurosci. 2005;33(1):171-9. PMid:18432965 DOI:

Strasser B, Gostner JM, Fuchs D. Mood, food, and cognition: Role of tryptophan and serotonin. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016;19(1):55-61. PMid:26560523 DOI:

Nieuwenhuizen AG, Hochstenbach-Waelen A, Veldhorst MA, Westerterp KR, Engelen MP, Brummer RJ, et al. Acute effects of breakfasts containing a-lactalbumin, or gelatin with or without added tryptophan, on hunger, “satiety” hormones and amino acid profiles. Br J Nutr. 2021;101(12):1859-66. PMid:19017422 DOI:

Coşkun Ş, Özer Ç, Gönül B, Take G, Erdoǧan D. The effect of repeated tryptophan administration on body weight, food intake, brain lipid peroxidation and serotonin immunoreactivity in mice. Mol Cell Biochem. 2006;286(1-2):133-8. PMid:16432760 DOI:

Niesink RJ, Van Ree JM. Short-term isolation increases social interactions of male rats: A parametric analysis. Physiol Behav. 1982;29(5):819-25. PMid:7156221 DOI:

Ju CY, Tsai CT. Serotonergic mechanisms involved in the suppression of feeding by 5-HTP in rats. Chin J Physiol. 1995;38(4):235-40. PMid:8925676

Keenan H, Doria A, King G, Aiello L. Positivity of C-peptide, GADA and IA2 antibodies in Type 1 diabetic patients with extreme duration. Diabetes. 2006;55:A65.

Tucker LA, Thomas KS. Increasing total fiber intake reduces risk of weight and fat gains in women. Nutrition. 2009;139(3):567-81. PMid:19158230 DOI:

Lattimer JM, Haub MD. Effects of dietary fiber and its components on metabolic health. Nutrients. 2010;2(12):1266-89. PMid:22254008 DOI:

Cryan JF, Mombereau C, Vassout A. The tail suspension test as a model for assessing antidepressant activity: Review of pharmacological and genetic studies in mice. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2005;29(4-5):571-625. PMid:15890404 DOI:

Hori H, Ozeki Y, Teraishi T, Matsuo J, Kawamoto Y, Kinoshita Y, et al. Relationships between psychological distress, coping styles, and HPA axis reactivity in healthy adults. J Psychiatr Res. 2010;44(14):865-73. PMid:20334880 DOI:

Lippi SL. Brain sciences chronic mild unpredictable stress and high-fat diet given during adolescence impact both cognitive and noncognitive behaviors in young adult mice. Brain Sci. 2021;11(2):260. PMid:33669543 DOI:

Capello AE, Markus CR. Effect of sub chronic tryptophan supplementation on stress-induced cortisol and appetite in subjects differing in 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014;45:96-107. PMid:24845181 DOI:

Stachowicz M, Lebiedzińska A. The effect of diet components on the level of cortisol. Eur Food Res Technol. 2016;242(12):2001-9. DOI:

Tafet GE, Idoyaga-Vargas VP, Abulafia DP, Calandria JM, Roffman SS, Chiovetta A, et al. Correlation between cortisol level and serotonin uptake in patients with chronic stress and depression. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2001;1(4):388-93. PMid:12467090 DOI:

Kim YR, Park BK, Kim YH, Shim I, Kang IC, Lee MY. Antidepressant effect of Fraxinus rhynchophylla hance extract in a mouse model of chronic stress-induced depression. Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:8249563. PMid:30065945 DOI:

Gangwisch JE, Hale L, Garcia L, Malaspina D, Opler MG, Payne ME, et al. High glycemic index diet as a risk factor for depression: Analyses from the women’s health initiative. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(2):454-63. PMid:26109579 DOI:

Madison A, Kiecolt-Glaser JK. Stress, depression, diet, and the gut microbiota: Human-bacteria interactions at the core of psychoneuroimmunology and nutrition. Curr Opin Behav Sci. 2019;28:105-10. PMid:32395568 DOI:

Van de Wouw M, Boehme M, Lyte JM, Wiley N, Strain C, O’Sullivan O, et al. Short-chain fatty acids: Microbial metabolites that alleviate stress-induced brain-gut axis alterations. J Physiol. 2018;596(20):4923-44. PMid:30066368 DOI:

Wurtman RJ, Wurtman JJ. Brain serotonin, carbohydrate-craving, obesity and depression. Obes Res. 1995;3 Suppl 4:477S-80. PMid:8697046 DOI:

Wurtman RJ, Hefti F, Melamed E. Precursor control of neurotransmitter synthesis. Pharmacol Rev. 1980;32(4):315-35. PMid:6115400

Cowen PJ. Cortisol, serotonin and depression: All stressed out? Br J Psychiatry. 2002;180:99-100. PMid:11823315 DOI:

Meliala A, Andwi Y, Sumiwi AR, Narwidina P, Sulistyo SR, Setyaningsih W. Banana peel flakes alleviate blood glucose and stress in a dose-dependent manner. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2020;12(8):75-81. DOI:




How to Cite

Meliala A, Narwidina P, Supriyanto I, Sumarno YT, Pratama YY, Damayanti R. The Role of Banana (Musa balbisiana Colla) Peel Floss as Functional Food Matrix to Alleviate Chronic Stress. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Jun. 21 [cited 2023 Mar. 28];10(A):1608-16. Available from: