Phytochemical Profile and Pharmacological Activity of Vernonia amygdalina Delile Stem Bark Extracts Using Different Solvent Extraction


  • Muhammad Fauzan Lubis Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Poppy Anjelisa Zaitun Hasibuan Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Hafid Syahputra Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Ririn Astyka Bachelor Program of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharnacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Intan Baruna Phytochemical Laboratory, Departement of Pharmaceutical Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia



Vernonia amygdalina, Phytochemicals, Antioxidant, Cytotoxic


BACKGROUND: Vernonia amygdalina is a native plant from Africa which is widely distributed to Asia, especially in Indonesia. Parts of V. amygdalina such as roots, leaves, and bark are used by the community as traditional medicines such as antidiabetic, antibacterial, and anticancer.

AIM: This study aims to show the effect of solvents in the V. amygdalina stem bark extraction process on phytochemical’s content and their correlation with pharmacological activities.

METHODS: V. amygdalina extract from stem bark in this study was obtained using the maceration method with different solvents. The extracts were investigated for total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoids content (TFC) using calorimetry assay. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to grouping the extracts based on Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) data. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was done using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethyl benzhothiazoline sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assay. While, the cytotoxic activity of the extracts was carried out using MTT assay on PANC-1 cell line. The correlation phytochemical content and pharmacology activities of extracts were analyzed using person correlation method.

RESULTS: There were significantly different TPC and total flavonoid content of extracts (p < 0.05). The ethyl acetate extract was identified to have the highest TPC, TFC, DPPH, ABTS, and cytotoxic values of 3.61 ± 0.03 mg GAE/g dry powder, 25.12 ± 0.09 mg QE/g dry powder, 27.12 ± 0.65 μg/mL, 67.02 ± 0.23 μg/mL, and 33.83 ± 0.82 μg/mL, respectively (p < 0.05). This is supported by PCA analysis which shows that there are differences in extracts based on FTIR data and there is a strong correlation between TPC and TFC values with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.

CONCLUSIONS: This study report that each extract of V. amygdalina stem bark gives a distinct phytochemical profile (TPC, TFC, and FTIR spectrum) that contributes to the antioxidant activity and cytotoxic activity.


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How to Cite

Lubis MF, Hasibuan PAZ, Syahputra H, Astyka R, Baruna I. Phytochemical Profile and Pharmacological Activity of Vernonia amygdalina Delile Stem Bark Extracts Using Different Solvent Extraction. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Apr. 16 [cited 2023 Mar. 28];10(A):860-6. Available from:

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