The Influence of Ballistic Exercises on Growth, Somatomedin Hormones for Soccer Players


  • Wael Ramadan Department of Sports Training, Faculty of Physical Education, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
  • Ahmed Elsayed Department of Sports Training, Faculty of Physical Education, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
  • Mariam Abu Alim Department of Sports Biomechanics, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
  • Ellie Abdi Center of Pedagogy, Montclair State University, Montclair, USA
  • Medhat Kasem Abdel Razek Department of Physical Education, Umm Al Qura University, Mecca, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia



Growth hormone, Somatomedin hormone, Ballistic training, Muscular ability


BACKGROUND: The sequence of exercise-induced hormonal changes demonstrates the quantification of training and competition loads and developing a sport-specific conditioning program.

AIM: The present study investigates the impact of ballistic exercises on biochemical variables and the muscular ability of soccer players.

METHODS: Participants were assigned randomly to two groups, including ten participants in each group, and underwent a pre- post-intervention test, including growth hormone, somatomedin hormone, triple jump, and wide jump.

RESULTS: The experimental group showed a significant increase in Growth by 43.56%, somatomedin by 6.99%, Triple jumps by 18.65%, and Wide jump by 15.68% compared to the control group.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, ballistic exercises improved growth and somatomedin hormone, triple jump, and wide jump and thus enhancing biochemical variables and muscular ability.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Morgans R, Orme P, Anderson L, Drust B. Principles and practices of training for soccer. J Sport Health Sci. 2014;3:251-7. DOI:

Williams AM, Hodges NJ. Practice, instruction and skill acquisition in soccer: Challenging tradition. J Sports Sci. 2005;23(6):637-50. PMid:16195012 DOI:

Kent M. The Oxford Dictionary of Sports Science and Medicine. Oxford: Oxford University press; 1998.

Burk E. Ballistic Training for Explosive Eesults. Florida: Human Kinetics Publisher; 2001.

Deschenes MR, Tenny KA, Wilson MH. Increased and decreased activity elicits specific morphological adaptations of the neuromuscular junction. Neuroscience. 2006;137(4):1277-83. PMid:16359818 DOI:

Newton R, Kraemer W, Häkkinen K, Humphries B, Murphy A. Kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activation during explosive upper body movements. J Appl Biomech. 1996;12(1):31-43. DOI:

Fleck S, Kraemer W. Designing Resistance Training Programs. 3rd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2004.

Raastad T, Bjøro T, Hallén J. Hormonal responses to high and moderate-intensity strength exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2000;82(1-2):121-8. PMid:10879453 DOI:

Ratamess NA, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS, Maresh CM, Vanheest JL, Sharman MJ, et al. Androgen receptor content following heavy resistance exercise in men. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;93(1):35-42. PMid:15748830 DOI:

Tremblay MS, Copeland JL, Van Helder W. Effect of training status and exercise mode on endogenous steroid hormones in men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;96(2):531-9. PMid:14514704 DOI:

Gatti R, De Palo EF. An update: Salivary hormones and physical exercise. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2011;21(2):157-69. PMid:21129038 DOI:

Spiering BA, Kraemer WJ, Anderson JM, Armstrong LE, Nindl BC, Volek JS, et al. Effects of elevated circulating hormones on resistance exercise-induced Akt signaling. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(6):1039-48. PMid:18461003 DOI:

Mangine GT, Ratamess NA, Hoffman JR, Faigenbaum AD, Kang J, Chilakos A. The effects of combined ballistic and heavy resistance training on maximal lower and upper-body strength in recreationally trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(1):132-9. PMid:18296966 DOI:

García-Ramos A, Jaric S, Padial P, Feriche B. Force-velocity relationship of upper body muscles: Traditional versus ballistic bench press. J Appl Biomech. 2016;32(2):178-85. PMid:26540734 DOI:

Gilbert G, Lees A. Changes in the force development characteristics of muscle following repeated maximum force and power exercise. Ergonomics. 2005;48(11-4):1576-84. PMid:16338723 DOI:

Migiano MJ, Vingren JL, Volek JS, Maresh CM, Fragala MS, Ho JY, et al. Endocrine response patterns to acute unilateral and bilateral resistance exercise in men. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(1):128-34. PMid:19816216 DOI:

Wilkinson SB, Tarnopolsky MA, Grant EJ, Correia CE, Phillips SM. Hypertrophy with unilateral resistance exercise occurs without increases in endogenous anabolic hormone concentration. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006;98(6):546-55. PMid:16972050 DOI:

Haff GG, Triplett NT, editors. Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. 4th ed. Florida: Human Kinetics; 2015.

Fallo F. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and physical exercise. J Sports Med Phys fitness. 1993;33(3):306-12. PMid:8107485

Mullington J, Hermann D, Holsboer F, Pollmächer T. Age-dependent suppression of nocturnal growth hormone levels during sleep deprivation. Neuroendocrinology. 1996;64(3):233-41. PMid:8875441 DOI:

Häkkinen K, Pakarinen A, Hannonen P, Häkkinen A, Airaksinen O, Valkeinen H, et al. Effects of strength training on muscle strength, cross-sectional area, maximal electromyographic activity, and serum hormones in premenopausal women with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol. 2002;29(6):1287-95. PMid:12064848

Kraemer WJ, Fry AC, Warren BJ, Stone MH, Fleck SJ, Kearney JT, et al. Acute hormonal responses in elite junior weightlifters. Int J Sports Med. 2006;13(2):103-9. DOI:

Johansson AG, Forslund A, Hambraeus L, Blum WF, Ljunghall S. Growth hormone-dependent insulin-like growth factor binding protein is a major determinant of bone mineral density in healthy men. J Bone Mine Res. 1994;9(6):915-21. PMid:7521562 DOI:

Jullien H, Bisch C, Largouët N, Manouvrier C, Carling CJ, Amiard V. Does a short period of lower limb strength training improve performance in field-based tests of running and agility in young professional soccer players? J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(2):404-11. PMid:18550954 DOI:

Bouagina R, Padulo J, Fray A, Larion A, Abidi H, Chtara M, et al. Short-term in-season ballistic training improves power, muscle volume and throwing velocity in junior handball players. A randomized control trial. Bio Sport. 2022;39(2):415-26. PMid:35309523 DOI:

Kilic Y, Cetin HN, Sumlu E, Pektas MB, Koca HB, Akar F. Effects of boxing matches on metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters in male elite boxers. Medicina (Kaunas). 2019;55(6):288. PMid:31216765 DOI:

Rosendal L, Langberg H, Flyvbjerg A, Frystyk J, Ørskov H, Kjaer M. Physical capacity influences the response of insulin-like growth factor and its binding proteins to training. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;93(5):1669-75. PMid:12381752 DOI:

Sonksen PH. Insulin, growth hormone and sport. J Endocrinol. 2001;170(1):13-25. PMid:11431133 DOI:

Kelly PJ, Eisman JA, Stuart MC, Pocock NA, Sambrook PN, Gwinn TH. Somatomedin-C, physical fitness, and bone density. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990;70(3):718-23. PMid:2307727 DOI:

Fagan CD. Ballistic Training: The Effectiveness of Maximal Power Training on Physical Performance (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). University of Calgary, Calgary, AB; 2000.

Holcomb W, Lander J, Rutland R., Wilson GD. The effectiveness of a modified plyometric program on power and the vertical jump. J Strength Cond Res. 1996;10:89-92. DOI:

Christou M, Smilios I, Sotiropoulos K, Volaklis K, Pilianidis T, Tokmakidis SP. Effects of resistance training on the physical capacities of adolescent soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(4):783-91. PMid:17194231 DOI:

Hong AR, Hong SM, Shin YA. Effects of resistance training on muscle strength, endurance, and motor unit according to ciliary neurotrophic factor polymorphism in male college students. J Sports Sci Med. 2014;13(3):680-8. PMid: 25177199




How to Cite

Ramadan W, Elsayed A, Alim MA, Abdi E, Razek MKA. The Influence of Ballistic Exercises on Growth, Somatomedin Hormones for Soccer Players. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Jun. 23 [cited 2023 Mar. 22];10(A):1023-7. Available from:



Sports Medicine


Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.