Assessment of the Possibilities of Forensic Identification Population of Kazakhstan by Craniometric Indicators

Authors

  • Saule Mussabekova Department of Pathology, Non-Profit Joint-Stock Company Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan; Department of Informatics and Biostatistics, Non-Profit Joint-Stock Company Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9622-8218
  • Anastassiya Stoyan Department of Pathology, Non-Profit Joint-Stock Company Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan; Department of Informatics and Biostatistics, Non-Profit Joint-Stock Company Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan
  • Xeniya Mkhitaryan Department of Pathology, Non-Profit Joint-Stock Company Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan; Department of Informatics and Biostatistics, Non-Profit Joint-Stock Company Karaganda Medical University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7142-7656

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2022.9130

Keywords:

Forensic medical examination, Skull, Human identification, Craniometric indicators, Diagnostic sign

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Craniometric indicators are one of the most reliable sources of information about the population. Despite the development of genetic methods, skull measurements are extremely important in anthropology and forensic medicine. In addition to the history of population development, environmental factors such as climate and lifestyle contribute to variations in human skull shape. Due to the high variability of human individuals, the anthropological study of the population is carried out selectively, with a comparison of different population groups (ethnic, professional, age, gender). The lack of clear ideas about the typical parameters and proportions of the skull among the people of Kazakhstan creates a certain gap in forensic-medical identification.

AIM: The aim of the work is to check the hypothesis about the relationship between variations in skull morphology and changes in craniometric indicators with climatic conditions and the specifics of lifestyle in populations living in different territories of Kazakhstan.

METHODS: 187 male and 114 female adult skulls found on the territory of the two largest regions of Kazakhstan were examined. The variable variability of 25 craniometric indicators of skulls found on the territory of Central and South Kazakhstan was studied. All osteometric changes were performed using standard anthropometric instruments, followed by the calculation of craniometric indices. Multidimensional statistics were applied.

RESULTS: The two populations demonstrate differences in craniometric indicators formed in different geographical and ecological conditions, regardless of gender. It was found that the sizes of the skulls found in the two studied regions of Kazakhstan statistically significantly differ in 5 craniometric indicators for men and 8 craniometric indicators for women. Significant changes were noted in the size of the full and upper height of the face, the average width of the face, the height of the body of the lower jaw and the height of the nose in men.  The most dimorphic variables for forensic medical evaluation in the studied populations of female skulls were transverse, altitudinal and zygomatic diameters, mastoid width, width of the base of the skull, width of the occipital foramen, upper face height and nose height. The shape of the skulls found in the studied territories is predominantly brachycephalic. The cranial index was >81.1% - at men, 83% - at women. The study showed that race affects the size of the skull, regardless of gender. Craniometric parameters in male and female skulls vary according to different criteria. In women between races, there are statistically significant differences in the size of the width of the occipital foramen and the average width of the face. Statistically significant differences in the width of the base of the skull, the zygomatic diameter and the average width of the face between the Caucasoid and Mongoloid races were revealed in the studied regions in men. The established differences made it possible to form additional differential diagnostic criteria.

CONCLUSION: Identification of the features inherent in the population living in certain territories provides auxiliary information for medical and forensic identification of a person. In this study, population-specific craniometric indicators have been developed for inhabitants of two regions of Kazakhstan, which expand and complement identification capabilities when categorizing skeletal remains found in these territories.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

References

Franklin D, Cardini A, Flavel A, Kuliukas A. The application of traditional and geometric morphometric analyses for forensic quantification of sexual dimorphism: preliminary investigations in a Western Australian population. Int J Legal Med. 2012;126(4):549-58. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-012-0684-8 PMid:22399102 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-012-0684-8

Ogawa Y, Imaizumi K, Miyasaka S, Yoshino M. Discriminant functions for sex estimation of modern Japanese skulls. J Forensic Leg Med. 2013;20(4):234-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2012.09.023 PMid:23622466 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2012.09.023

Iscan MY. Forensic anthropology of sex and body size. Forensic Sci Int. 2005;147(2-3):107-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.09.069 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.09.069

Hughes CE, Juarez C, Yim AD. Forensic anthropology casework performance: Assessing accuracy and trends for biological profile estimates on a comprehensive sample of identified decedent cases. J Forensic Sci. 2021;66(5):1602-16. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14782 PMid:34160079 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14782

Pashkova VI, Reznikov BD. Forensic Identification of the Personality by Bone Remains. Saratov: Saratov University Press; 1978. p. 320.

Stansfield E, Parker J, O’Higgins P. A sensitivity study of human mandibular biting simulations using finite element analysis. J Archaeol Sci Rep. 2018; 22: 420-432. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.04.026 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2018.04.026

Francisco RA, Evison MP, Costa Junior ML, Silveira TC, Secchieri JM, Guimarães MA. Validation of a standard forensic anthropology examination protocol by measurement of applicability and reliability on exhumed and archive samples of known biological attribution. Forensic Sci Int. 2017;279:241-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.08.015 PMid:28926780 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.08.015

Martínez-Abadías N, Esparza M, Sjøvold T, González-José R, Santos M, Hernández M, et al. Pervasive genetic integration directs the evolution of human skull shape. Evolution. 2012;66(4):1010-23. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01496.x PMid:22486686 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2011.01496.x

Thomas RM, Parks CL, Richard AH. Accuracy rates of sex estimation by forensic anthropologists through comparison with DNA typing results in forensic casework. J Forensic Sci. 2016;61(5):1307-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13137 PMid:27352918 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13137

Small C, Schepartz L, Hemingway J, Brits D. Three-dimensionally derived interlandmark distances for sex estimation in intact and fragmentary crania. Forensic Sci Int. 2018;287:127-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.02.012 PMid:29655098 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.02.012

Saini V, Srivastava R, Shamal SN, Singh TB, Kumar V, Kumar P, et al. Temporal variations in basicranium dimorphism of North Indians. Int J Legal Med. 2014;128(4):699-07. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-013-0957-x PMid:24374986 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-013-0957-x

Austin D, King RE. The biological profile of unidentified human remains in a forensic context. Acad Forensic Pathol. 2016;6(3):370-90. https://doi.org/10.23907/2016.039 PMid:31239913 DOI: https://doi.org/10.23907/2016.039

Noback ML, Harvati K. The contribution of subsistence to global human cranial variation. J Hum Evol. 2015;80:34-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.11.005 PMid:25661439 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.11.005

Noback ML, Harvati K, Spoor F. Climate-related variation of the human nasal cavity. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2011;145(4):599-614. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.21523 PMid:21660932 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.21523

von Cramon-Taubadel N. Evolutionary insights into global patterns of human cranial diversity: Population history, climatic and dietary effects. J Anthropol Sci. 2014;92:43-77. https://doi.org/10.4436/jass.91010 PMid:24038629

Lacruz RS, Stringer CB, Kimbel WH, Wood B, Harvati K, O’Higgins P, et al. The evolutionary history of the human face. Nat Ecol Evol. 2019;3(5):726-36. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0865-7 PMid:30988489 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0865-7

Tomilina VV. Medico-forensic identification. Handbook of a forensic medical expert. M.: Publishing house“NORMA-INFRA”. M; 2000. p. 472.

Grzybovsky AM, Ivanov SV, Gorbatova MA. Comparison of Quantitative Data of Two Independent Samples Using Statistica and SPSS Software: Parametric and Nonparametric Criteria. Science and Healthcare; 2016. p. 2. Available from: https://www.cyberleninka.ru/article/n/sravnenie-kolichestvennyh-dannyhdvuh-nezavisimyh-vyborok-s-ispolzovaniem-programmnogoobespecheniya-statistica-i-spss. [Last accessed on 2020 Aug 05].

Katherine Spradley M, Jantz RL. Ancestry estimation in forensic anthropology: Geometric morphometric versus standard and nonstandard interlandmark distances. J Forensic Sci. 2016;61(4):892-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13081 PMid:27364267 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13081

Bertsatos A, Papageorgopoulou C, Valakos E, Chovalopoulou ME. Investigating the sex-related geometric variation of the human cranium. Int J Legal Med. 2018;132(5):1505-14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-018-1790-z PMid:29380124 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-018-1790-z

Cappella A, Gibelli D, Vitale A, Zago M, Dolci C, Sforza C, et al. Preliminary study on sexual dimorphism of metric traits of cranium and mandible in a modern Italian skeletal population and review of population literature. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2020;44:101695. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2020.101695 PMid:32259691 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2020.101695

Ekizoglu O, Hocaoglu E, Inci E, Can IO, Solmaz D, Aksoy S, et al. Assessment of sex in a modern Turkish population using cranial anthropometric parameters. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2016;21:45-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2016.06.001 PMid:27497333 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2016.06.001

Evteev A, Cardini AL, Morozova I, O’Higgins P. Extreme climate, rather than population history, explains mid-facial morphology of Northern Asians. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2014;153(3):449-62. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22444 PMid:24374801 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22444

Woo EJ, Jung H, Tansatit T. Cranial index in a modern people of Thai ancestry. Anat Cell Biol. 2018;51(1):25-30. https://doi.org/10.5115/acb.2018.51.1.25 PMid:29644107 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5115/acb.2018.51.1.25

Liebenberg L, Krüger GC, L’Abbé EN, Stull KE. Postcraniometric sex and ancestry estimation in South Africa: A validation study. Int J Legal Med. 2019;133(1):289-96. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-018-1865-x PMid:29797281 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-018-1865-x

Kyllonen KM, Simmons-Ehrhardt T, Monson KL. Stature estimation using measurements of the cranium for populations in the United States. Forensic Sci Int. 2017;281:184.e1-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.10.011 PMid:29129342 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.10.011

Mergentay A, Dusentay B, Kulov DB, Bekembayeva GS, Koikov VV, Omarkulov BK, et al. The analysis of working load of general practitioners in the republic of Kazakhstan. Res J Pharm Tech. 2019;12(5):2283-88. https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-360x.2019.00381.0 DOI: https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00381.0

Abikenova FS, Meyramov G, Zhautikova S, Abdikadirova K, Zhienbayeva C, Talaspekova Y, et al. Investigation of antidiabetogenic effect of the iodine-selenium concentrate in animals with chronic alloxan diabetes of varying severity. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021;9(A):535-40. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.5873 DOI: https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2021.5873

Noble J, Cardini A, Flavel A, Franklin D. Geometric morphometrics on juvenile crania: Exploring age and sex variation in an Australian population. Forensic Sci Int. 2019;294:57-68. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.10.022 PMid:30453177 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.10.022

Herrera MD, Tallman SD. Craniometric variation and ancestry estimation in two contemporary Caribbean populations. Forensic Sci Int. 2019;305:110013. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.110013 PMid:31710881 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.110013

Kranioti EF, García-Donas JG, Can IO, Ekizoglu O. Ancestry estimation of three Mediterranean populations based on cranial metrics. Forensic Sci Int. 2018;286:265.e1-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.02.014 PMid:29576396 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2018.02.014

Hartley S, Winburn AP. A hierarchy of expert performance as applied to forensic anthropology. J Forensic Sci. 2021;66(5):1617-26. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14761 PMid:34180547 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14761

Ismagulov O, Ismagulova AO, Nadirbekov IO, Sataev MA. Dynamics of craniological indicators of ancient and medieval inhabitants of Kazakhstan in the light of ethnogenesis Kazakh people. Proceedings of the Samara Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Social, Humanitarian, Medico-Biological Sciences. 2018;5(62 ):59-72. Available from: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/dinamika-kraniologicheskih-pokazateleydrevnih-i-srednevekovyh-naselnikov-kazahstana-v-sveteetnogeneza-kazahskogo-naroda. [Last accessed 2022 Feb 20].

Gillet C, Costa-Mendes L, Rérolle C, Telmon N, Maret D, Savall F. Sex estimation in the cranium and mandible: A multislice computed tomography (MSCT) study using anthropometric and geometric morphometry methods. Int J Legal Med. 2020;134(2):823-32. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-019-02203-0 PMid:31897666 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-019-02203-0

Savoldi F, Massetti F, Tsoi JK, Matinlinna JP, Yeung AW, Tanaka R, et al. Anteroposterior length of the maxillary complex and its relationship with the anterior cranial base. Angle Orthod. 2021;91(1):88-97. https://doi.org/10.2319/020520-82.1 PMid:33289836 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2319/020520-82.1

Maddux SD, Yokley TR, Svoma BM, Franciscus RG. Absolute humidity and the human nose: A reanalysis of climate zones and their influence on nasal form and function. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2016;161(2):309-20. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23032 PMid:27374937 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23032

Upapant V, Pattararchachai J, Urathamakul S, Setabutr D. Nasal sidewall dimensions in the Asian nose: A Thai cadaveric study. Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2022;74(1):5-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-020-02044-z PMid:35070920 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12070-020-02044-z

McDowell JL, Kenyhercz MW, L’Abbé EN. An evaluation of nasal bone and aperture shape among three South African populations. Forensic Sci Int. 2015;252:189.e1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2015.04.016 PMid:25963274 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2015.04.016

Avent PR, Hughes CE, Garvin HM. Applying posterior probability informed thresholds to traditional cranial trait sex estimation methods. J Forensic Sci. 2022;67(2):440-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14947 PMid:34799862 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14947

Pengyue L, Siyuan X, Yi J, Wen Y, Xiaoning L, Guohua G, et al. ANINet: A deep neural network for skull ancestry estimation. BMC Bioinformatics. 2021;22(1):550. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-021-04444-6 PMid:34763653 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12859-021-04444-6

Okkesim A, Sezen Erhamza T. Assessment of mandibular ramus for sex determination: Retrospective study. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res. 2020;10(4):569-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.07.019 PMid:32939335 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2020.07.019

Petrov RV, Yаgmurov OD, Bozhchenko AP. Identification significance of the dimensional characteristics of the Turkish saddle of the skull of an adult Caucasian. Bull Forensic Med. 2018;4:35-7. Available from: https://www.forens-med.ru/book.php?id=5695. [Last accessed on 2022 Feb 21].

Downloads

Published

2022-04-07

How to Cite

1.
Mussabekova S, Stoyan A, Mkhitaryan X. Assessment of the Possibilities of Forensic Identification Population of Kazakhstan by Craniometric Indicators. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Apr. 7 [cited 2024 Apr. 23];10(A):685-94. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/9130

Issue

Section

Forensic Medicine

Categories