Impact of Educational Leaflet Dissemination on University Students’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice toward COVID-19 in Indonesia


  • Yelly Oktavia Sari Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia
  • Lailaturrahmi Lailaturrahmi Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia
  • Dita Permatasari Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Andalas, Padang, Indonesia



COVID-19, Knowledge, attitude, practice, Educational intervention, University students


The COVID-19 pandemic has become a public health problem at the global level. University students are expected to have positive knowledge, attitudes, and practice towards COVID-19, not only for themselves but also for their community. A pre-post study was conducted on undergraduate students at Universitas Andalas, Indonesia, in 2020 to explore the impact of an educational poster on university students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice towards COVID-19. An amount of 407 students participated in this study. Most of the participants were female (N=308; 75.68%), aged 20 years and above (N=251; 61.67%), and were non-health professional students (N=337; 82.80%). Female students had significantly better knowledge, while female and health sciences students had better preventive practice related to COVID-19. After the intervention, only attitude scores significantly differ from the pre-intervention score (p=0.004). However, the proportion of participants who had poorer practice was higher than the pre-intervention, although the number of participants who had practice improvement also increased. The educational leaflet significantly improves students’ attitudes, but not their knowledge and practice. Careful design of the educational method is needed to improve university students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Jing JL, Yi TP, Bose RJ, McCarthy JR, Tharmalingam N, Madheswaran T. Hand sanitizers: A review on formulation aspects, adverse effects, and regulations. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(9):3326. PMid:32403261

World Health Organization. WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard; 2022. Available from: [Last accessed on 2022 Mar 05].

Djalante R, Lassa J, Setiamarga D, Sudjatma A, Indrawan M, Haryanto B, et al. Review and analysis of current responses to COVID-19 in Indonesia: Period of January to March 2020. Prog Disaster Sci. 2020;6:100091. PMid:34171011

Wang M, Han X, Fang H, Xu C, Lin X, Xia S, et al. Impact of health education on knowledge and behaviors toward infectious diseases among students in gansu province, China. Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:6397340. PMid:29707573

Alzoubi H, Alnawaiseh N, Al-Mnayyis A, Abu-Lubad M, Aqel A, Al-Shagahin H. Covid-19 - Knowledge, attitude and practice among medical and non-medical university students in Jordan. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2020;14:17-24.

Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, Ren L, Zhao J, Hu Y, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395:497-506. PMid:31986264

Al-Hanawi MK, Angawi K, Alshareef N, Qattan AM, Helmy HZ, Abudawood Y, et al. Knowledge, attitude and practice toward COVID-19 among the public in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study. Front Public Health. 2020;8:1-10. PMid:32574300

Azlan AA, Hamzah MR, Sern TJ, Ayub SH, Mohamad E. Public knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19: A cross-sectional study in Malaysia. PLoS One. 2020;15(5):1-15. PMid:32437434

Hatabu A, Mao X, Zhou Y, Kawashita N, Wen Z, Ueda M, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward COVID-19 among university students in Japan and associated factors: An online cross-sectional survey. PLoS One. 2021;15(12):1-19. PMid:33347488

Peng Y, Pei C, Zheng Y, Wang J, Zhang K, Zheng Z, et al. A cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practice associated with COVID-19 among undergraduate students in China. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1292. PMid:32847554

Ismail FH, Rohmah R, Ibrahim IN, Wen CK. International student collaboration in efforts to raise public awareness of COVID-19 prevention. ASEAN J Community Engagem. 2021;5(2 ):269-288.

Hasanica N, Ramic-Catak A, Mujezinovic A, Begagic S, Galijasevic K, Oruc M. The effectiveness of leaflets and posters as a health education method. Mater Sociomed. 2020;32(2):135-9. PMid:32843863

Sabarudin S, Mahmudah R, Ruslin R, Aba L, Nggawu LO, Syahbudin S, et al. Efektivitas pemberian edukasi secara online melalui media video dan leaflet terhadap tingkat pengetahuan pencegahan Covid-19 di kota baubau. J Farm Galen (Galenika J Pharmacy). 2020;6(2):309-18.

Salman M, Mustafa Z, Asif N, Zaidi HA, Shehzadi N, Khan TM, et al. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices related to COVID-19 among health professionals of Punjab province of Pakistan. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2020;14:707-12. PMid:32794458

World Health Organization. WHO Issues Its First Emergency Use Validation for a COVID-19 Vaccine and Emphasizes Need for Equitable Global Access; 2020. Available from: [Last accessed on 2022 Mar 06].

Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of Education and Culture Indonesia. Higher Education Statistics 2020. Jakarta: Secretariat Directorate General of Higher Education; 2020.

Paramita GV. Studi Kasus Perbedaan Karakteristik Mahasiswa di Universitas ‘X’-Indonesia dengan Universitas ‘Y’-Australia (A Case Study of The Difference in Characteristics of Students at University ’X’-Indonesia and Univerity ’Y’-Australia). Humaniora. 2010;1:629.

Universitas Andalas. Daftar Fakultas dan Program Studi - Penerimaan Mahasiswa Baru Universitas Andalas (List of Faculties and Programs - New Students Admission Universitas Andalas); 2021. Available from: [Last accessed on 2022 Apr 03].

Maheshwari S, Gupta P, Sinha R, Rawat P. Knowledge, attitude, and practice towards coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among medical students: A cross-sectional study. J Acute Dis. 2020;9:100.

Al-Batanony MA, Al-Batanony MA, Mansour AE. A questionnaire-based survey perspective of university students from health and non-health colleges on COVID-19 pandemic: A questionnaire-based survey. Am J Public Health Res. 2020;8:176-83.

Salman M, Mustafa ZU, Asif N, Zaidi HA, Hussain K, Shehzadi N, et al. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices related to COVID-19: A cross-sectional study in two Pakistani university populations. Drugs Ther Perspect. 2020;36:319-25. PMid:32395069

Adli I, Widyahening IS, Lazarus G, Phowira J, Baihaqi LA, Ariffandi B, et al. Knowledge, attitude, and practice related to the COVID-19 pandemic among undergraduate medical students in Indonesia: A nationwide cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2022;17:e0262827. PMid:35061848

Deeks A, Lombard C, Michelmore J, Teede H. The effects of gender and age on health related behaviors. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:213. PMid:19563685

Jia Y, Ma S, Bai L, Xiao Q, Wu Y, Gao Y, et al. Health literacy and disparities in knowledge, attitude and practice regarding COVID-19 among college students during the COVID-19 outbreak in China: A cross-sectional study. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021;14:4477-88. PMid:34754254

Sazali MF, Rahim SS, Mohamed MH, Omar A, Tze Ping Pang N, Saffree Jeffree M, et al. Knowledge, attitude and practice on COVID-19 among students during the early phase of pandemic in a university in Borneo, Malaysia. J Public Health Res. 2021;10(3):2122. PMid:33759447

Moran KR, Del Valle SY. A meta-analysis of the association between gender and protective behaviors in response to respiratory epidemics and pandemics. PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0164541. PMid:27768704

Ahmad A, Sann LM, Rahman HA. Factors associated with knowledge, attitude and practice related to hepatitis B and C among international students of Universiti Putra Malaysia. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:611. PMid:27443276

Jarab AS, Al-Qerem W, Mukattash TL, Al-Hajjeh DM. Pharmacy and Pharm.D students’ knowledge and information needs about COVID-19. Int J Clin Pract. 2021;75(3):1-8. PMid:32891073

Hasan H, Raigangar V, Osaili T, Neinavaei NE, Olaimat AN, Aolymat I. A cross-sectional study on university students’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward COVID-19 in the United Arab Emirates. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2021;104(1):75-84. PMid:33236710

Suprayitno E, Hidayat S, Mumpuningtias ED, Permatasari D, Wardita Y. Community-based health education improve knowledge and attitudes of COVID-19 prevention. J Nurs Pract. 2021;5(1):136-45.

Singh N, Ramakrishnan T, Khera A, Singh G. Impact evaluation of two methods of dental health education among children of a primary school in rural India. Med J Dr DY Patil Univ. 2016;9:66-71.

Gupta R, Ingle NA, Kaur N, Ingle E, Charania Z. Evaluation of the impact of different health education methods in undergraduate students of dental college, Mathura City. J Adv Oral Res. 2016;7:7-11.

Sussman SW, Siegal WS. Informational influence in organizations: An integrated approach to knowledge adoption. Inf Syst Res. 2003;14:47-65.

Champion V, Skinner C. The health belief model. In: Glanz K, Rimer B, Viswanath K, editors. Health Behavior and Health Education. San Fransisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2008, p. 45-65.

Han Y, Jiang B, Guo R. Factors affecting public adoption of COVID-19 prevention and treatment information during an infodemic: Cross-sectional survey study. J Med Internet Res. 2021;23(3):e23097. PMid:33600348




How to Cite

Sari YO, Lailaturrahmi L, Permatasari D. Impact of Educational Leaflet Dissemination on University Students’ Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice toward COVID-19 in Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Apr. 23 [cited 2022 Jul. 4];10(E):714-9. Available from:



Public Health Education and Training


Funding data