The Validation of Indonesian Version of Patient Health Questionnaire-9


  • Cut N. Dian Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Elmeida Effendy Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Mustafa M. Amin Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia



Indonesian version of Patient Health Questionnaire, Depression level, Medical students, Validation Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Mini ICD 10


Background: The level of depression among college students differ to each other based on their activities, particularly in terms of their educational backgrounds. However, the national depression level among these students needs to be investigated further due to the differences of social and cultural environments. 

Aims: This research aims to investigate the level of depression among medical students in the range of ages 17-22. 

Research Design: The study performed the Indonesian version of PHQ-9 which was assessed to 500 medical students. 

Methodology: The Indonesian version of PHQ-9 was prepared via forward-backward translation. The statistical analysis such as the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), the Internal Concurrent Reliability, and concurrent validity were performed. 

Results: Our findings have confirmed that the correlation of Indonesian version of PHQ-9 to the original version. The ROC analysis has suggested that the Area under the Curve (AUC) was accounted for 92.0, whereas the Cut-off value was 5.5. With sensitivity and specificity respectively were 0.907 and 0.865, the results could confirm the depression level that equals 5.5 or above. 

Conclusion: The PHQ-9 translated version could be used as an evaluation to determine the depression level to the sample of medical students with acceptable validation results. 


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How to Cite

Dian CN, Effendy E, Amin MM. The Validation of Indonesian Version of Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Mar. 28 [cited 2024 Jul. 21];10(T7):193-8. Available from:

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