The Effects of High Fat Diet on the Liver of the White Rat Model Obesity


  • Rusdiana Rusdiana Department of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Siti Syarifah Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Yunita Sari Pane Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Sry Suryani Widjaja Department of Biochemistry, Medical Faculty, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Dwi Rita Anggraini Department of Anatomy, Medical Faculty, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia



Standard diet, High fat diet, Rat galur wistar, Steatosis


BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common form of chronic liver disease with the manifestation of over-accumulation of fat in the liver.

AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of occurrence of steatosis in rats induced by a standard diet, a high-fat diet, and a modified high-fat diet.

METHODS: This study used 18 white rats of the Wistar strain, divided into three groups, and fed for 9 weeks. Before feeding, all rats were measured their body weight, abdominal circumference, and body length. We measured body weight every week, while body length and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks. After 9 weeks of diet, all rats were subjected to injection of Ketamine and examined for metabolic markers and histopathological examination of liver organs.

RESULT: There was an increase in body weight of rats in the three groups with the average percentage increase in body weight in the three groups of rats before and after being fed a diet for 9 weeks found in Group 1 29.19% 1 (187−264.40 g), Group 2 by 19.12% (219.33−275 g), and Group 3 24.53% (213.33−275 g). Steatosis in Group 1 was 57.50% of hepatocytes containing macrovesicular fat droplets and called Grade 2 (moderate). In contrast, with a high-fat diet, steatosis occurred around 93.33%−95% of hepatocytes containing macrovesicular fat droplets and called steatosis Grade 3 (severe).

CONCLUSION: The percentage of hepatocytes that had steatosis in obese rats induced by a high-fat diet was more significant than in obese models induced by a standard diet.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Nobili V, Alisi A, Newton KP, Schwimmer JB. Comparison of the phenotype and approach to pediatric vs adult patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Gastroenterology. 2016;150(8):1798-810. PMid:27003600 DOI:

Aydos LR, do Amaral LA, de Souza RS, Jacobowski AC, Dos Santos EF, Rodrigues Macedo ML. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease induced by high-fat diet in C57bl/6 models. Nutrients. 2019;11:3067. PMid:31888190 DOI:

Pompili S, Vetuschi A, Gaudio E, Tessitore A, Capelli R, Alesse E, et al. Long-term abuse of a high-carbohydrate diet is as harmful as a high-fat diet for development and progression of liver injury in a mouse model of NAFLD/NASH. Nutrition 2020;75:110782. PMid:32268264 DOI:

Ekstedt M, Franzen LE, Mathiesen UL, Thorelius L, Holmqvist M, Bodemar G, et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with NAFLD and elevated liver enzymes. Hepatology. 2006;44(4):865-73. PMid:17006923 DOI:

El-Kader SM, El-Den Ashmawy EM. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: The diagnosis and management. World J Hepatol. 2015;7(6):846-58. PMid:25937862 DOI:

Al Rifai M, Silverman MG, Nasir K, Budoff MJ, Blankstein R, Szklo M, et al. The association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, and metabolic syndrome, with systemic inflammation and subclinical atherosclerosis: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). Atherosclerosis. 2015;239(2):629-33. PMid:25683387 DOI:

Mirmiran P, Amirhamidi Z, Ejtahed HS, Bahadoran Z, Azizi F. Relationship between diet and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A review article. Iran J Public Health 2017;46(8):1007. PMid:28894701

Umemoto T, Subramanian S, Ding Y, Goodspeed L, Wang S, Han CY, et al. Inhibition of intestinal cholesterol absorption decreases atherosclerosis but not adipose tissue inflammation. J Lipid Res. 2012;53(11):2380-9. PMid:22956784 DOI:

Ma Z, Chu L, Liu H, Wang W, Li J, Yao W, et al. Beneficial effects of paeoniflorin on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease induced by high-fat diet in rats. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):1-10. PMid:28300221 DOI:

Brunt EM, Wong VW, Nobili V, Da CP, Sookoian S, Maher JJ, et al. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015;1:15080. DOI:

Polyzos SA, Kountouras J, Zavos C, Tsiaousi E. The role of adiponectin in the pathogenesis and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2010;12(5):365-83. PMid:20415685 DOI:

Baffy G. Kupffer cells in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: The emerging view. J Hepatol. 2009;51(1):212-23. PMid:19447517 DOI:

Diehl AM, Day C. Cause, pathogenesis, and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(21):2063-72. PMid:29166236 DOI:

Friedman SL, Neuschwander-Tetri BA, Rinella M, Sanyal AJ. Mechanisms of NAFLD development and therapeutic strategies. Nat Med. 2018;24(7):908-22. PMid:29967350 DOI:

Chen X, Acquaah-Mensah GK, Denning KL, Peterson JM, Wang K, Denvir J, Lu Y. High-fat diet induces fibrosis in mice lacking CYP2A5 and PPARα: A new model for steatohepatitis-associated fibrosis. Am J Physiol Gastroint Liver Physiol. 2020;319(5):G626-35. PMid:32877213 DOI:

Kleiner DE, Brunt EM, Van Natta M, Behling C, Contos MJ, Cummings OW, et al. Design and validation of a histological scoring system for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Hepatology. 2005;41(6):1313-21. PMid:15915461 DOI:

Santhekadur PK, Kumar DP, Sanyal AJ. Preclinical models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol. 2018;68(2):230-7. PMid:29128391 DOI:

Semiane N, Foufelle F, Ferré P, Hainault I, Ameddah S, Mallek A, et al. High carbohydrate diet induces nonalcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) in a desert gerbil. Comptes Rendus Biol. 2017;340(1):25-36. DOI:

Lian CY, Zhai ZZ, Li ZF, Wang L. High fat diet-triggered non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A review of proposed mechanisms. Chem Biol Interact. 2020;330:109199. DOI:

Picchi MG, Mattos AM, Barbosa MR, Duarte CP, Gandini MD, Portari GV, et al. A high-fat diet as a model of fatty liver disease in rats. Acta Cir Bras. 2011;26(1):25-30 PMid:22030811 DOI:

Xin X, Cai BY, Chen C, Tian HJ, Wang X, Hu YY, et al. High-trans fatty acid and high-sugar diets can cause mice with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis with liver fibrosis and potential pathogenesis. Nutr Metab. 2020;17(1):1-12. DOI:

Norris GH, Porter CM, Jiang C, Millar CL, Blesso CN. Dietary sphingomyelin attenuates hepatic steatosis and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2017;40:36-43. PMid:27855315 DOI:

Ji G, Zhao X, Leng L, Liu P, Jiang Z, et al. Comparison of dietary control and atorvastatin on high fat diet induced hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in rats. Lipids Health Dis. 2011;10(1):1-10. PMid:21269482 DOI:

Echeverría F, Valenzuela R, Bustamante A, Álvarez D, Ortiz M, Soto-Alarcon SA, et al. Attenuation of high-fat diet-induced rat liver oxidative stress and steatosis by combined hydroxytyrosol- (HT-) eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation mainly relies on HT. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2018;2018:5109503. PMid:30057681 DOI:

de Souza CE, Stolf AM, Dreifuss AA, dos Reis Lívero F, de Oliveira Gomes L, Petiz L, et al. Characterization of an alcoholic hepatic steatosis model induced by ethanol and high-fat diet in rats. Braz Arch Biol Technol. 2015;58:367-78. DOI:

Cheng H, Xu N, Zhao W, Su J, Liang M, Xie Z, et al. (‐)‐Epicatechin regulates blood lipids and attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed high‐fat diet. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017;61(11):1700303. PMid:28734036 DOI:

Ibrahim SH, Hirsova P, Malhi H, Gores GJ. Animal models of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: eat, delete, and inflame. Digestive Dis Sci. 2016;61(5):1325-36. PMid:26626909 DOI:

Fouret G, Gaillet S, Lecomte J, Bonafos B, Djohan F, Barea B, et al. 20-Week follow-up of hepatic steatosis installation and liver mitochondrial structure and activity and their interrelation in rats fed a high-fat-high-fructose diet. Br J Nutr. 2018;119(4):368-80. PMid:29498345 DOI:




How to Cite

Rusdiana R, Syarifah S, Pane YS, Widjaja SS, Anggraini DR. The Effects of High Fat Diet on the Liver of the White Rat Model Obesity. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Apr. 30 [cited 2023 Mar. 28];10(A):709-14. Available from:

Funding data

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>