Characteristic of Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-Induced Inflammation in A Rat Model of Diabetes-Associated Renal Injury


  • Heru Sasongko Doctoral Program, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; Department of Pharmacy, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta, Indonesia
  • Arief Nurrochmad Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Abdul Rohman Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; Center of Excellence, Institute for Halal Industry and Systems, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Agung Endro Nugroho Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, Indonesia



Diabetes mellitus, Inflammation, Nicotinamide, Streptozotocin


Background: Chemical agents such as streptozotocin (STZ) and nicotinamide (NAD) are used in animal models of diabetes mellitus and their related consequences in the kidneys. Several studies have been conducted to determine the modeling, however, the results are still unclear. Moreover, diabetic nephropathy is considered to begin with an inflammatory reaction in the kidneys. 

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the metabolic profile STZ and NAD induce inflammation in the kidney. 

Methods: The male Wistar rats used were divided into control and STZ-induced diabetes. Half of the diabetes group received a single dose of nicotinamide (230 mg/Kg) 15 minutes after STZ injection and all groups were monitored for 6 weeks. Furthermore, the profiles of creatinine, urea, and uric acid from serum and urine were observed and the kidney inflammation was tested by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with IL-6 and TNF-α parameters. 

Results: The result shows that the administration of a single dose of 230 mg/kg NAD in diabetic rats induced with 50 mg/kg and 65 mg/kg STZ affects body weight and kidney organ index. For 6 weeks of testing, both doses of STZ were enhanced several parameters of kidney damage in diabetic rats in blood and urine chemical parameters. Furthermore, the use of NAD to promote inflammation in STZ-induced diabetic rats gave no significant difference. However, NAD can help mice live longer and avoid problems throughout the test. 

Conclusions: The use of NAD leads to inflammation in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Therefore, the administration of Nicotinamide is recommended since it helps the rats live longer during the experiment. 


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How to Cite

Sasongko H, Nurrochmad A, Rohman A, Nugroho AE. Characteristic of Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-Induced Inflammation in A Rat Model of Diabetes-Associated Renal Injury. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 3 [cited 2024 Apr. 12];10(T8):16-22. Available from: