Rapid Growth in Malnutrition Children Associated with Higher Systolic Blood Pressure in Adolescent
Keywords:Rapid growth, Malnutrition, Blood pressure, Cohort study
BACKGROUND: Several studies found that children experiencing rapid growth earlier in life might increase the risk of chronic disease. Cardiovascular disease and hypertension are common risk factors and have been the leading cause of death worldwide. However, studies investigating the effects of rapid growth in early life on blood pressure later in life are limited.
AIM: This study aimed to analyze the association between rapid growth after the first 1000 days of life and blood pressure at 17−19 years old.
METHODS: We analyzed 17-year follow-up cohort using secondary data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey from the second (1997), third (2000), and fifth wave (2014). The survey was conducted in 13 provinces in Indonesia. No more than 672 children under 2 years old were included in the study. Rapid growth was defined as an alteration in length or height-per-age and weight-per-age z-score, based on WHO Child Growth Standard, on 1997 and 2000 time frame which was greater than 0.67, experienced by children with malnutrition (low birth weight, stunted, underweight, and wasting). Blood pressure was measured three times by an oscillometric method in 2014. In addition, we used a one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance) test to assess the association of rapid growth on systolic blood pressure.
RESULTS: Malnutrition children at 0-2-year-old that grow rapidly in length or height, had higher systolic blood pressure than normal children (p = 0.029). In contrast, there was no difference observed in systolic blood pressure in children with malnutrition and children who did not experience rapid growth in weight.CONCLUSIONS: Children who had a history of malnutrition earlier in life (0−23 months) and had rapid growth in length or height after the first 1000 days of life had higher systolic blood pressure than normal children and children with malnutrition who did not grow rapidly.
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