The Effectiveness of Red Betel Leaf and Cinnamon Oil for Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory in Perineal Tears: A Scoping Review
Keywords:Red betel leaf, Cinnamon oil, Anti-inflammatory, Antibacterial, Perineal tears
BACKGROUND: A tear in the perineum experienced by postpartum women can occur due to an episiotomy process or a spontaneous tear. This cloak, in addition to causing curiosity, can also cause infection if not treated or treated appropriately. Based on several research results, the current treatment for perineal tears is the administration of antiseptic, anti-pain, and antibiotics orally or topically. Several Indonesian herbal plants can be used to accelerate the healing of torn wounds in the perineum due to the ability of these plants as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. These plants include red betel leaf and cinnamon oil.
AIM: The objective of the study was to review the literature from research results that discuss the activity of red betel leaf and cinnamon oil as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory both orally and topically.
SEARCH METHOD: Searching for articles through databases on Google Scholar, in the past years, that is, 2008–2021.
INCLUSION: Review articles involving research on experimental animals with in vitro and in vivo activity tests using the Completely Randomized Design method.
RESULTS: As well as, 12 relevant articles showed that both red betel leaf and cinnamon oil were tested in vitro and in vivo, showing that these two plants effectively act as antibacterial and anti-inflammatory.CONCLUSION: Two herbal plants red betel leaf and cinnamon oil have the potential to treat and accelerate the healing of perineal tears through their antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities.
Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block
Aigmueller T, Umek W, Elenskaia K, Frudinger A, Pfeifer J, Helmer H, et al. Guidelines for the management of third and fourth degree perineal tears after vaginal birth from the Austrian Urogynecology Working Group. Int Urogynecol J. 2013;24(4):553-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00192-012-1982-x PMid:23160871
Fernando RJ, Sultan AH, Freeman RM, Williams AA, Adams EJ. The Management of Third-and Fourth-degree Perineal Tears. Guideline No. 29. London: Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists; 2015.
East CE, Begg L, Henshall NE, Marchant PR, Wallace K. Local cooling for relieving pain from perineal trauma sustained during childbirth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;5:CD006304. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006304.pub3 PMid:22592710
Chou D, Abalos E, Gyte GM, Gülmezoglu AM. Paracetamol/ acetaminophen (single administration) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;1:CD008407. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD008407.pub2 PMid:23440827
Department of Health. Queensland Clinical Guidelines. Maternity and Neonatal Clinical Guidelines: Perineal Care. Queensland: Statewide Maternity and Neonatal Clinical Network (Queensland); 2012.
Arksey H, O’Malley L. Scoping studies: Towards a methodological framework. Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2005:8(1):19-32.
Frohlich J, Kettle C. Perineal care. BMJ Clin Evid. 2015;2015:1401. PMid:25752310
Smith LA, Price N, Simonite V, Burns EE. Incidence of and risk factors for perineal trauma: A prospective observational study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2013;13:59. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-13-59 PMid:23497085
Villot A, Deffieux X, Demoulin G, Rivain AL, Trichot C, Thubert T. Management of third and fourth degree perineal tears: A systematic review. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2015;44(9):802-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jgyn.2015.06.005 PMid:26143094
Williams AB, Bartram CI, Halligan S, Spencer JA, Nicholls RJ, Kmiot WA. Anal sphincter damage after vaginal delivery using threedimensional endosonography. Obstet Gynecol. 2001:97(5Pt 1):770-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0029-7844(01)01318-7 PMid:11339932
Lestari, P. Age Dominant Influence of Behavior Perineum Wound Care in The Postpartum Women Hospital Sleman [Usia Berpengaruh Dominan terhadap Perilaku Perawatan Luka Perineum pada Ibu Nifas di RSUD Sleman]. J Ners Midwifery Indonesia. 2016;4(2):95-101.
Fatimah, Lestari P. The Relationship between Perineal Massage Education and the Implementation of Perineal Massage in Third Trimester Pregnant Women [Hubungan Pemberian Edukasi Pijat Perineum dengan Pelaksanaan Pijat Perineum pada Ibu Hamil Trimester III]. Vol. 1. In: Proceedings of the Indonesian Vocational National Seminar; 2018.
Emelda, Alfiana RD, Kusumawardani N, Yolanda, Widyarini S. The episiotomy effect of topical combination of cinnamon oil and red betel on skin wound healing mechanism. Adv Health Sci Res. 2021;40:144-51.
Anugrahwati M, Purwaningsih T, Manggalarini JA, Alnavis NB, Wulandari DN, Pranowo HD. Extraction of ethanolic extract of red betel leaves and its cytotoxicity test on HeLa cells. Proc Eng. 2016;148:1402-7.
Rinanda T, Alga DM. Antibacterial Activity of Red Betel (Piper crocatum) Leaf Methanolic Extracts aginst Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Vol. Vol. 2. In: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference, Syiah Kuala University-Life Sciences and Engineering; 2012.
Reveny J. Antimicrobial activity of the extract and fraction of red betel leaf (Piper betle Linn.). J Ilmu Dasar. 2011;12(1):6-12.
Li AL, Ni WW, Zhang QM, Li Y, Zhang X, Wu, HY, et al. Effect of cinnamon essential oil on gut microbiota in the mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis. Microbiol Immunol. 2020;64(1):23-32. https://doi.org/10.1111/1348-0421.12749 PMid:31595527
Kwon HK, Hwang JS, So JS, Lee CG, Sahoo A, Ryu JH, et al. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1. BMC Cancer. 2019;10(1):392. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-392 PMid:20653974
Tung YT, Yen PL, Lin CY, Chang ST. Anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils and their constituents from different provenances of indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) leaves. Pharm Biol. 2010;48(10):1130-6. https://doi.org/10.3109/13880200903527728 PMid:20815702
Tung YT, Chua MT, Wang SY, Chang ST. Anti-inflammation activities of essential oil and its constituents from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) twigs. Bioresource Technol. 2008;99(9):3908-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2007.07.050 PMid:17826984
Meidarlina I, Damayanti L, Rikmasari R. Efficacy of red betel leaf (Piper crocatum) against Candida albicans over acrylic denture surface: An in vitro study. J Int Oral Health. 2021;13(3):281.
Hafizah I, Aisyah Y, Hasni D. Effect of betel type (Piper sp) and concentration of betel leaf extract on quality and antibacterial activities of glycerine bar soap. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci. 2021;667(1):012016. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/667/1/012016
Pradikdo BA, Wardhani AS, Widodo E, Sudjarwo E. Effect of red betel leaf extract (Piper crocatum) on digestive organ and ileal villi developments in broiler. Int Res J Adv Eng Sci. 2020;5:185-7.
Kusuma SA, Hendriani R, Genta A. Antimicrobial spectrum of red Piper betel leaf extract (Piper crocatum Ruiz & Pav) as natural antiseptics against airborne pathogens. J Pharm Sci Res. 2017;9(5):583-7.
Lister IN, Ginting CN, Girsang E, Armansyah A, Marpaung HH, Sinaga AP, et al. Antioxidant properties of red betel (Piper crocatum) leaf extract and its compounds. J Nat Rem. 2020;19(4):198-205.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Ratih Devi Alfiana, Sundari Mulyaningsih, Emelda Emelda, Dyah Pradnya Paramita, Amanah Rahma Delia, Shofi Salsabila (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
All rights reserved.