Essential Oil Constituents and Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Java Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) stem from Bandung, West Java, Indonesia


  • Ayu Nala El Muna Haerussana Department of Pharmacy, Poltekkes Kemenkes Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia; Center of Excellence on Utilization of Local Material for Health Improvement, Poltekkes Kemenkes Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia
  • Haura Fatona Chairunnisa Department of Pharmacy, Poltekkes Kemenkes Bandung, Bandung, Indonesia



Cymbopogon winterianus stem, Java citronella, Gas chromathography-mass spectroscopy, Physicochemical, Essential oil


BACKGROUND: Cymbopogon winterianus essential oil contains citral-derived chemicals with a variety of pharmacological effects, although there has been minimal research on pharmacognostic, phytochemical, and biological aspects.

AIM: This research aims to evaluate the pharmacognostic and chemical components of C. winterianus stem essential oil.

METHODS: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of macroscopic, microscopic, water content, water extractive values, ethanol extractive values, and essential oil yield. The oil was extracted by ethanol steam distillation method, the oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS.

RESULTS: Cymbopogon winterianus stems are 15-35 cm long and 0.5-2 cm broad, with a rough, stiff, and thin texture, with prominent fibers on the top and bottom surfaces. It has a bitter and slightly spicy taste with a distinctive lemony aroma and was greenish yellow in hue with a blend of purplish-red colors. The upper and lower epidermis was examined under a microscope, which revealed sclerenchyma fibers, trichomes, parenchyma, calcium oxalate (rosette), cortex, stem pith, oil cells, stomata (Gramineae type), trachea (ladder and spiral thickening), and collenchyma. The water content was 7.16±0.72%, the water-soluble extractive value was 12.152±0.003%, the ethanol-soluble extractive value was 12.290 ±0.76%, and the essential oil content was 6.46±0.50%. Essential oil constituents were 6-octen-1-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-, formate; trifluoroacetyl-lavandulol; n-hexadecanoic acid; 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-; oxacyclotetradecane-2,11-dione, 13-methyl-; palmitic acid vinyl ester; glycidyl palmitate; 9,17-Octadecadienal, (Z)-; glycidyl palmitoleate; 1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene; and cyclotrisiloxane, hexamethyl-.

CONCLUSION: The essential oil constituents and preliminary pharmacognostic evaluation of Cymbopogon winterianus stem can provide useful data for further phytochemical analysis, quality control, and standardization of Cymbopogon winterianus. Citronellyl formate detected as citral derivatives as the main compound in the ethanol steam distillation method.


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How to Cite

Haerussana ANEM, Chairunnisa HF. Essential Oil Constituents and Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Java Citronella (Cymbopogon winterianus) stem from Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Apr. 24 [cited 2023 Mar. 31];10(A):1338-46. Available from: