Solid Dispersion of Tenoxicam – HPMC by Freeze-Drying: Solid State Properties, Dissolution Study, and Analgesic Activity in Mice


  • Salman Umar Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Andalas, Padang 25163, Indonesia
  • Hendrizal Usman Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Andalas, Padang 25163, Indonesia
  • Hulwa Salsabila Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Andalas, Padang 25163, Indonesia
  • Erizal Zaini Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Andalas, Padang 25163, Indonesia



Analgesic, Dissolution rate, Freeze-drying, HPMC, Solid dispersion, Solubility, Tenoxicam


AIM: The aim of this study was to prepare solid dispersion of tenoxicam with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) to improve solubility, dissolution rate, and in vivo analgesic activity.

METHODS: Solid dispersion of tenoxicam with HPMC was prepared using the freeze-drying technique in three ratios of drug to carrier (1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 w/w). The s olid-state properties of solid dispersion powders were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Solubility and dissolution rate studies were conducted in an aqueous medium. Analgesic activity was evaluated using the writhing method.

RESULTS: Analysis of PXRD and DSC results indicated a decreased degree of crystallinity of tenoxicam in solid dispersion powders. Solid dispersion of tenoxicam exhibited a significant improvement in solubility and dissolution rate compared to intact tenoxicam, in line to the increment on the ratio of HPMC. Analgesic activity study revealed that solid dispersion 1:2 was more effective than intact tenoxicam.

CONCLUSIONS: This study concludes that the solid dispersion technique is a promising strategy to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of tenoxicam.


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How to Cite

Umar S, Usman H, Salsabila H, Zaini E. Solid Dispersion of Tenoxicam – HPMC by Freeze-Drying: Solid State Properties, Dissolution Study, and Analgesic Activity in Mice. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Apr. 25 [cited 2023 Mar. 28];10(A):800-6. Available from:

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