Immune Response (Serum Globulin) in BALB/c Mice after Hookworm Egg Protein Immunization as the Initial Stage of Developing Laboratory Diagnostics: An In Vivo Approach


  • Budi Santosa Department of Medical and Clinical Laboratory Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia
  • Arista Kurnia Budi Fristiani Department of Laboratory Technology, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia image/svg+xml
  • Edi Dharmana Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Diponegoro, Semarang, Indonesia image/svg+xml
  • Fitriani Nur Damayanti Department of Midwifery, Faculty of Nursing and Health Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang, Semarang, Indonesia image/svg+xml
  • Heru Santoso Wahito Nugroho Department of Health, Poltekkes Kemenkes Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia



Hookworm, Mouse serum protein, Hookworm egg protein


BACKGROUND: Hookworm infestation is still high and requires practical laboratory diagnosis with high sensitivity and specificity. Meanwhile, there are several limitations associated with the existing method; hence, a new method is essentially needed. Furthermore, the principle of immunological reactions needs to be developed by identifying the extent of hookworm eggs suspension immune responses. The BALB/c mouse is among the most widely used inbred models used in biomedical research and is particularly utilized in immunology and infectious disease research.

AIM: This study aims to determine whether the protein concentration of hookworm eggs stimulates antibodies formation (proteins) in the serum of BALB/c mice.

METHODS: This is an experimental study with a post-test only control design approach. Egg protein was isolated by removing the contents using a mini drill to immunize BALB/c mice, while the antibody response was observed by spectrophotometer and agglutination methods.

RESULTS: The Chi-square and Post hoc statistical tests showed a significance p ≤ 0.001 indicating a relationship between hookworm egg protein and agglutination results. The higher the antibody level, the more visible the agglutination and vice versa.

CONCLUSION: These results are expected to form a basis for developing more practical and efficient diagnostic methods based on antigen-antibody reactions.


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How to Cite

Santosa B, Fristiani AKB, Dharmana E, Damayanti FN, Nugroho HSW. Immune Response (Serum Globulin) in BALB/c Mice after Hookworm Egg Protein Immunization as the Initial Stage of Developing Laboratory Diagnostics: An In Vivo Approach. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Jun. 6 [cited 2023 Mar. 31];10(A):1164-9. Available from:

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