Electronic and Conventional Cigarette Exposure Aggravate Metabolic Parameters in High-Fat Diet-Induced Rats


  • Naufal Arif Ismail Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3851-2509
  • Tsavira Nabila Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6309-4679
  • Anastasya Syam Ramadhani Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Dwi Nur Ahsani Department of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1344-3997




Cigarette, Electronic cigarette, High-fat diet, Metabolic parameters, Nicotine


BACKGROUND: The health implications of the perceived use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are safer than conventional cigarettes on metabolic parameters are not clearly understood. The current study evaluates the metabolic parameters as the impact of cigarette and e-cigarette exposure in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced rats.

METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: i) NC: normal control group; ii) HFD Alone; iii) HFD + Cig and iv) HFD + E-Cig, administered HFD followed by cigarette or e-cigarette exposure, respectively. Six cigarettes stick with nicotine 2 mg/stick and 2 ml of e-cigarette liquid with nicotine 6 mg/ml were used for 25 cycles of exposure. In the end, the rats were sacrificed and obtained blood for metabolic parameter analysis, consisting of lipid profile, glucose, uric acid, urea, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT). Statistical analysis with One-Way ANOVA with post hoc was used for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride, total cholesterol, glucose, uric acid, urea, and creatinine. Furthermore, Kruskal-Wallis with Mann-Whitney U was used for nonparametric data such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL), AST, and ALT.

RESULTS: Data of all metabolic parameters were shown a significant increase in the group of HFD Alone, HFD + Cig, and HFD + E-Cig, otherwise HDL levels. Furthermore, HFD + Cig followed by HFD + E-Cig groups were significantly higher compared to HFD Alone group.

CONCLUSION: E-cigarettes were shown to be less harmful than conventional cigarettes but did not guarantee it was safe. Both cigarettes and e-cigarettes aggravated metabolic parameters in HFD-induced rats.


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How to Cite

Ismail NA, Nabila T, Ramadhani AS, Ahsani DN. Electronic and Conventional Cigarette Exposure Aggravate Metabolic Parameters in High-Fat Diet-Induced Rats. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 May 4 [cited 2023 Mar. 28];10(A):841-7. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/9723