Relationship Between Phylogenetic of Apium and Foeniculum Plants from Central Java, Indonesia, and Their Secondary Metabolites Potency against COVID-19 Protease


  • Hermin Pancasakti Kusumaningrum Biotechnology Study Program, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University,Semarang, Indonesia
  • Rejeki Siti Ferniah Biotechnology Study Program
  • Siti Nur Jannah Biotechnology Study Program
  • Mufida Budi Kurniawati Biotechnology Study Program
  • Anis Afifah Biotechnology Study Program
  • Yoshua Mario Sumbodo Biotechnology Study Program
  • Salma Seftia Hanif Biotechnology Study Program
  • Tia Erfianti Post Graduate Study Program
  • Yuriza Eshananda Biology Study Program



Apium, Foeniculum, Phylogenetic, COVID-19 proteases


BACKGROUND: The emergence of COVID-19 in the late of 2019 resulted in the massive screening of drugs, including natural products, to support the current vaccines. Apium and Foeniculum vegetables are members of the Apiaceae family that potentially used to be natural immunosuppressant.

AIM: The purpose of this research is to analyze the phylogenetic position between these two plants as well as find out their secondary metabolites potency against COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) and the papain-like protease (PLpro).

METHODS: The phylogenetic analysis of Apium and Foeniculum from Indonesia was carried out based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the bioactive virtual screening assay was completed through AutoDock Vina software.

CONCLUSION: Overall, Apium and Foeniculum have close relationships among the members of Apiaceae after maximum likelihood analysis. Furthermore, it also has 70 similar bioactive compounds that some of these potentially inhibit both of COVID-19 proteases.


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How to Cite

Kusumaningrum HP, Ferniah RS, Jannah SN, Kurniawati MB, Afifah A, Sumbodo YM, Hanif SS, Erfianti T, Eshananda Y. Relationship Between Phylogenetic of Apium and Foeniculum Plants from Central Java, Indonesia, and Their Secondary Metabolites Potency against COVID-19 Protease. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Jul. 5 [cited 2023 Mar. 31];10(A):1234-41. Available from:

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