Transforming Growth Factor Beta1 Expression in Cancer- Associated Fibroblasts of Urinary Bladder Cancer: Crucial Applications and Deep Insights


  • Noha Helmy Ghanem Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
  • Nafissa El-Badawy Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
  • Sahar Saad El Din Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
  • Iman Hewedi Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Galala University, Suez, Egypt
  • Lobna Shash Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt



Transforming growth factor beta1, Urinary bladder cancer, Cancer-associated fibroblast, Cancer-associated fibroblasts, Immunohistochemistry


Background: Urinary bladder carcinoma (UBC) is one of the most common malignancies in Egypt and all over the world. TGFB levels in plasma and urine were proved to connote predictive and prognostic attributes in UBC patients. Furthermore, Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are now recognized as a key player in carcinogenesis. Yet, TGFΒ1 expression in CAFs of UBC had not been elucidated. Moreover, TGFB1 targeted therapy is now emerging with potential benefits for TGFB1 expressing cancers.

Aim of the study: we dedicated this study to explore potential implications of TGFB1 immunohistochemical expression in CAFs of UBC by correlating it to relevant clinical and pathological data.

Material and methods: This retrospective study included 48 UBC specimens. Different tumor grades were presented in balanced groups. TGFB1 immunohistochemical expression was evaluated, categorized as low or high and compared in CAFs among different UBC grades, statistical analysis of the results was then followed.

Results: TGFB1 expression in CAFs was significantly different among tumor histologic types (P=0.01), high tumor grade (P=<0.01), presence of muscle invasion (P=<0.001), higher tumor stage (P=0.01), presence of preceding bilharziasis (P=0.003), and necrosis (P=0.03). There was a highly significant difference between TGFB1 expression in both tumor cells and CAFs (P=0.002). Intense CAFs TGFB1 staining was also strikingly observed along the muscle invading frontside UBC cells further emphasizing the pivotal role of CAFs expressing TGFB1 in invasion.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates significant predictive implications of TGFB1 in UBC, thus emphasizing its potential benefits in management and therapy.


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How to Cite

Ghanem NH, El-Badawy N, El Din SS, Hewedi I, Shash L. Transforming Growth Factor Beta1 Expression in Cancer- Associated Fibroblasts of Urinary Bladder Cancer: Crucial Applications and Deep Insights. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 May 25 [cited 2023 Mar. 22];10(A):1093-8. Available from: