Using Patch Testing to Improve Therapeutic Outcome in the Treatment of Hand Eczema in Vietnamese Patients
Keywords:Hand eczema, allergic contact dermatitis, atopic dermatitis
BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is a common chronic and relapsing skin disease with various clinical features. Hand eczema aetiology can be allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), irritant contact dermatitis (ICD), atopic dermatitis (AD) and unknown or combination causes. If the causative agents are not detected treatment of hand eczema will be a failure. A patch test can be useful to detect causative agents in suspected allergic contact hand eczema. Then patients will avoid contacting them. This results in the improvement of hand eczema. In Vietnam, patch test has not been used before, so we conduct this study.
AIM: To identify causative allergens by using patch test with 28 standard allergens in consecutive patients.
METHODS: A group of 300 HE patients from the National Hospital of Dermatology and Venereology (NHDV) in Vietnam were enrolled in this study. They were divided into 4 groups-ACD, ICD, AD and unknown aetiology. The patient was patch tested with 28 standard allergens to identify the causative agents.
RESULTS: Among the 300 HE enrolled patients, ACD accounted for 72.7%, AD and ICD had the same rate of 12.7%. 39.3% of the patients had a positive patch test. Reaction to nickel sulfate was the most common (10.3%), followed by potassium dichromate (9.7%), cobalt (4%) and fragrance mix (3.1%). About one-third of the cases had relevant clinical reactions correlated with the contact agents and clinical history. Males reacted to cement, thiuram mix and formaldehyde more than females, while females reacted to a nickel more than males.
CONCLUSIONS: Hand eczema has variable clinical features and diverse aetiology. ACD is an important cause of hand eczema that can be managed with a patch test to detect causative allergens. Nearly 40% of HE cases had positive patch test. Relevant patch test reactions were seen in one-third of the patients. We propose using patch test detect causative agents in suspected allergic contact hand eczema. Then patients will avoid contacting them. This results in the improvement of hand eczema.
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Copyright (c) 2019 Phuong Pham Thi Minh, Trang Thi Minh, Doanh Le Huu, Thuong Nguyen Van, Sau Nguyen Huu, Tung Vu Thanh, Mai Le Thi, Giang Quach Thi Ha, Nghi Dinh Huu, Van Tran Cam, My Le Huyen, Khang Tran Hau, Marco Gandolfi, Francesca Satolli, Claudio Feliciani, Michael Tirant, Aleksandra Vojvodic, Torello Lotti
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