Porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus) Flour Macerated with Strobilanthes crispus Reduced the Blood Glucose Levels of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats


  • Siska Ariftiyana Graduate School of Public Health, Universitas Alma Ata, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0349-5673
  • Lieyan Nurfikasari PKU Muhammadiyah Gombong, Gombong, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia; Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Alma Ata, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Dwi Murniyati Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Alma Ata, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Agus Prastowo Prof. Dr. Margono Soekarjo Hospital, Purwokerto, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
  • Yulinda Kurniasari Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Alma Ata, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
  • Hamam Hadi Graduate School of Public Health, Universitas Alma Ata, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1945-2539
  • Veriani Aprilia Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universitas Alma Ata, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6231-6487




Diabetes mellitus, Blood glucose, Amorphophallus oncophyllus, Strobilanthes crispus, Porang


BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases indicated by hyperglycemia. Dietary regulation represents a viable means of controlling blood glucose levels. Porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus) is a local tuber that has a low glycemic index due to its high glucomannan content. In combination with Strobilanthes crispus (SC), which is rich in antioxidants, porang flour could be a promising treatment approach for DM.

AIM: This study aimed to determine the effect of porang flour macerated with SC on the blood glucose levels of diabetic rats.

METHODS: Thirty-five Wistar (Rattus norvegicus) rats were divided into five groups on the basis of their diets: Normal/negative control (NC) group (non-diabetic, standard AIN-93 diet), positive control (PC) group (streptozotocin [STZ]-induced diabetic), glibenclamide (GB) group (STZ-induced diabetic, medicated with GB 100 mg/200 g body weight [BW]), porang (NP) group (modified AIN-93 diet, fiber substituted with 11% porang flour [equal to 1.1 g/200 g BW]), and SC-macerated porang (SP) group (modified AIN-93 diet, fiber substituted with 11% porang flour macerated with SC [equal to 1.1 g/200 g BW]). The rats’ food intakes, stools, and BWs were recorded throughout the study, while their blood glucose levels were measured before the induction of DM, 3 days after the induction of DM, and at the end of the study (14-day treatment period). The data were statistically analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance combined with Duncan’s multiple range test.

RESULTS: The rats’ feed intakes during the 14-day treatment period were almost the same, which influenced their BWs. After the induction of DM, the rats’ BWs appeared to decrease, albeit not to a statistically significant extent. This weight loss may have been better controlled in the treatment groups because the glucomannan content of the porang led to an improvement in the rats’ glucose metabolism, especially in the NP and SP groups. The rats’ stools appeared normal in consistency and moisture, and it was confirmed that there were no diarrhea incidents. The glucomannan content also decreased the blood glucose levels in the NP and SP groups. The SP group showed the best results in terms of decreased glucose levels due to the addition of SC as a source of antioxidants.

CONCLUSION: Porang exerted an antidiabetic effect that was comparable with the effect of GB (a commercial drug). In combination with SC, it provided a high level of antioxidants. Porang should be further studied to optimize its antidiabetic potency and potential for use as a functional food or nutraceutical.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


American Diabetes Association. Classification and diagnosis of diabetes melitus. Diabetes Care. 2015;38(Suppl):S8-16. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc15-S005 PMid:25537714

Roglic G. WHO Global report on diabetes: A summary. Int J Noncommunicable Dis. 2016;1(1):3.

Ganong WF. Medical Physiology [Fisiologi Kedokteran]. Jakarta, Indonesia: EGC; 2008. p. 725-56.

Augustin LS, Franceschi S, Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, La Vecchia C. Glycemic index in chronic disease: A review. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(11):1049. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601454 PMid:12428171

Faridah DN. Physicochemical properties of suweg flour (Amorphophallus campanulatus B1) and its glycemic index [Sifat fisiko-kimia tepung suweg (Amorphophallus campanulatus B1) dan indeks glikemiknya]. J Teknol dan Ind Pangan. 2005;14(3):254-9.

Harmayani E, Aprilia V, Marsono Y. Characterization of glucomannan from Amorphophallus oncophyllus and its prebiotic activity in vivo. Carbohydr Polym. 2014;112:475-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2014.06.019 PMid:25129770

Nissa C, Madjid IJ. Potency of glucomannan of porang flour as anti-obesity in high-fat induced rats [Potensi glukomanan pada tepung porang sebagai agen anti-obesitas pada tikus dengan induksi diet tinggi lemak]. J Gizi Klin Indones (The Indones J Clin Nutr). 2016;13(1):1-6.

Harianto H, Thohari I, Purwadi. Adding Porang Flour (Amophophallus ocophyllus) in Yoghurt Ice Cream in Terms of Physical Characteristic and Total of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Indonesia: Universitas Brawijaya; 2013.

Kalsum U, Malaka R, Yuliati FN. Organoleptic Quality and Melting Speed of Ice Cream with Porang Flour [Kualitas Organoleptik dan Kecepatan Meleleh Es Krim dengan Penambahan Tepung Porang (Amorphopallus onchopillus) Sebagai Bahan Penstabil]. Indonesia: Universitas Hasanudin; 2012.

Putri VN, Susilo B, Hendrawan Y. Effect of porang flour (Amorphophallus onchophyllus) in instant ice cream processing in term of physic and organoleptic quality [Pengaruh Penambahan Tepung Porang (Amorphophallus onchophyllus) pada Pembuatan Es Krim Instan Ditinjau dari Kualitas Fisik dan Organoleptik]. J Keteknikan Pertan Trop Biosist. 2014;2(3):188-97.

Evanuarini H, Hastuti P. Characteristic of low fat mayonnaise containing porang flour as stabilizer. Pak J Nutr. 2015;14(7):392-5.

Faridah A, Widjanarko SB. Addition of porang flour in mocaf (Modified cassava flour)-substituted noodle processing [Penambahan tepung porang pada pembuatan mi dengan substitusi tepung mocaf (Modified cassava flour)]. J Teknol Ind Pangan. 2014;25(1):98-105.

Sudaryati, Mulyani T, Hansyah ER. Physical and mechanical properties of edible film containing porang (Amorphopallus oncophyllus) and carboxymethylcellulose flour [Sifat fisik dan mekanis edible film dari tepung porang]. J Teknol Pertan. 2010;11(3):196-201.

Setyawati A, Purwadi, Thohari I. Physical and Organoleptic Properties (Aroma, Colour) of Processed-cheese with Addition of Porang Flour Emulsion [Kualitas Fisik dan Organoleptik (Aroma, Warna) Keju Olahan Dengan Penambahan Pengemulsi Tepung Porang]. Malang, Indonesia; 2013.

A RQ, Hasanah U, Hadi H, Mustofa M, Nurinda E, Kurniasari Y, et al. Acute Toxicity Study of Porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus) Flour Macerated with Strobilanthes crispus in Wistar rats. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021;9:976-81.

Aprilia V, Nurinda E, Alpina L, Hadi H, Ariftiyana S, Kurniasari Y. Reduction Procedure of Calcium Oxalate in Porang Flour by Maceration of Strobilanthes crispa [Proses Reduksi Kalsium Oksalat (Amoprhophallus oncophyllus) Dengan Maserasi Ekstrak Daun Keji Beling (Strobilanthes crispa)]. Indonesia; 2020. Available from: https://pdki-indonesia.dgip.go.id/detail/S00202006668?type=patent&keyword=proses+reduksi+kalsium+oksalat [Last accessed on 2021 Aug 12].

Fadzelly AB, Asmah R, Fauziah O. Effects of Strobilanthes crispus tea aqueous extracts on glucose and lipid profile in normal and streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2006;61(1):7-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11130-006-0002-z PMid:16688478

Reeves PG, Neilsen FH, Fahey GC. AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: Final report of the american institute of nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the formulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J Nutr. 1993;123(11):1939-51. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/123.11.1939 PMid:8229312

Nida S. Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorder of Diabetes Mellitus [Gangguan Metabolisme Karbohidrat Pada Diabetes Mellitus]. Malang: Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Brawijaya Malang; 2012.

Zakia U, Nurdiana, Fajar NA. Effect of cow milk powder consumption on HDL (High Density Lipoprotein) serum level in white rat (Rattus norvegicus) of Wistar strain as a diabetes mellitus tipe 2 model [Efek pemberian susu sapi bubuk terhadap kadar serum HDL (high density lipoprotein) pada tikus putih (Rattus norvegicus) galur Wistar model diabetes. J Gizi Pangan. 2015;10(1):1-8.

Rias YR, Sutikno E. Relationship between body weight and random blood glucose level of diabetic rats [Hubungan berat badan dengan kadar gula darah acak pada tikus diabetes mellitus]. J Wiyata. 2017;4(1):72-7.

Ling Z, Wang Q, Stange G, In P, Pipeleers D. Glibenclamide treatment recruits β-cell subpopulation into elevated and sustained basal insulin synthetic activity. Diabetes. 2006;55(1):78-85. PMid:16380479

Grover GJ, Koetzner L, Wicks J, Gahler RJ, Lyon MR, Reimer RA, et al. Effects of the soluble fiber complex PolyGlycopleX® (PGX®) on glycemic control, insulin secretion, and GLP-1 levels in Zucker diabetic rats. Life Sci. 2011;88(9-10):392-9. https:///doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2010.11.014 PMid:21115020

Chen H, Nie Q, Hu J, Huang X, Zhang K, Pan S, et al. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of glucomannan extracted from konjac on Type 2 diabetic rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2019;67(18):5278-88. https:///doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.9b01192 PMid:30964673

Donowarti I, Widjanarko SB, Yunianta Y, Pudjiastuti P. Acute toxicity test of low calcium oxalate porang (Amorphophallus mueleri Blume) flour. Iraqi J Agric Sci. 2021;52(1):218-31.

Deng J, Zhong J, Long J, Zou X, Wang D, Song Y, et al. Hypoglycemic effects and mechanism of different molecular weights of konjac glucomannans in Type 2 diabetic rats. Int J Biol Macromol. 2020;165:2231-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.10.021

Chen H, Cheng H, Liu Y, Liu S, Wu W. Konjac acts as a natural laxative by increasing stool bulk and improving colonic ecology in healthy adults. Appl Nutr Investig. 2006;22(11-12):1112-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2006.08.009 PMid:17027233

Lu XJ, Chen XM, Fu DX, Cong W, Ouyang F. Effect of Amorphophallus konjac oligosaccharides on STZ-induced diabetes model of isolated islets. Life Sci. 2002;72(6):711-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0024-3205(02)02303-2 PMid:12467911

Szkudelski T. The mechanism of alloxan and streptozotocin action in B cells of the rat pancreas. Physiol Res. 2001;50(6):537-46. PMid:11829314




How to Cite

Ariftiyana S, Nurfikasari L, Murniyati D, Prastowo A, Kurniasari Y, Hadi H, Aprilia V. Porang (Amorphophallus oncophyllus) Flour Macerated with Strobilanthes crispus Reduced the Blood Glucose Levels of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2022 Jan. 3 [cited 2022 May 21];10(T8):127-31. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/9505

Most read articles by the same author(s)