Relationships and Community Risk Factors for Elder Abuse and Neglect: Findings from the First National Prevalence Study on Elder Maltreatment


  • Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska World Health Organization, Country Office Skopje
  • Marijana Markovik Institute for Sociological, Political and Juridical Research, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje
  • Dinesh Sethi World Health Organization, Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen
  • Eleonora Serafimovska Institute for Sociological, Political and Juridical Research, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje



prevalence, elder abuse and neglect, community and relationship risk factors, female respondents, Republic of Macedonia.


OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to mesaure the 12-months prevalence of elder abuse and neglect in private huousehold and to examine the relationship and community level risk factors for elder abuse and neglect.

METHOD: Total of 960 respondents aged 65 years and above in private households, from all eight statistical regions participated in the study.  Nationally stratified quota sampling procedure was applied, through four stages. Information was collected in face-to face interview on socio-demographic, healthy life style, physical and mental health, and abuse and neglect types characteristics of elder population. Data were examined using descriptive statistics, binary logistic regression, and odd ratios (OR). Statistical significance was set up at p < 0.05.

RESULTS: The respondents reported prevalence of psychological abuse 25.7%, followed by financial abuse 12 %, neglect 6.6%, physical abuse 5.7%, physical injury 3.1%, and sexual abuse 1.3% (reported only in female respondents) in the previous 12-months. Living with close relatives, dissatisfaction with the household income, less equipped households, lacking property of house/flat are associated risk factors for elder maltreatment on relationship level. Living in the northeast, southeast, and Polog region are associated risk for elder maltreatment.

CONCLUSION: Study findings emphasised the previous data obtained with regards to the community and relationships risk factors for elder maltreatment.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Burston RG. Granny-battering. BMJ. 1975:592.

World Health Organization. Forty-ninth World Health Assembly Resolution, WHA49.25 Prevention of violence: a public health priority. Geneva: WHO, 1996.

Krug EG, Dahlberg LL, Mercy JA, Zwi AB & Lozano R, eds. World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2002.

Butchart A, Phinney A, Check P, Villaveces A, eds. Preventing violence: a guide to implementing the recommendations of the World report on violence and health. Geneva: Department of Injuries and Violence Prevention, World Health Organization, 2004.

Amstadter AB, Begle AM, Cisler JM, et al. Prevalence and correlates of poor self-rated health in the United States: the National Elder Mistreatment Study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010; 18(7):615–623.

United Nations. Report of the Second World Assembly on Ageing. Madrid, 2002.

The Toronto Declaration on the Global Prevention of Elder Abuse. Geneva: WHO, 2002. Accessed February 7, 2014.

Economic Commission for Europe. Report of the UNECE Ministerial Conference on Ageing. Leon, 2007. ( Accessed November 29, 2012).

Sethi D, Wood S, Mitis F, et al., eds. European report on preventing elder maltreatment. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2011.

World Health Organization. Social development and ageing. Crisis or opportunity? Special panel at Geneva 2000. Geneva: WHO, 2000.

State Statistical Office. Macedonia in figures. Skopje: State Statistical Office of the Republic of Macedonia, 2010.

Ministry of Health. Report on violence and health in Macedonia and guide for prevention. Skopje, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Macedonia, 2006.

Ministry of Labour and Social Policy. Annual report 2010. Skopje: Ministry of Labour and Social Policy of the Republic of Macedonia, 2010.

Connel CM. Older adults in health educational research: same recommendations. Health Educational Research. 1999; 14 (3): 427-431.

WHO. Definition of older or elderly person Assessed February 7, 2014.

WHO/INPEA. Missing voices. Geneva:World Health Organisation, 2002. ( Accessed December 12, 2011)

National Committee for the prevention of elder abuse/MetLife Mature Market Institute. The essentials: Preventing elderly abuse. New York: NY, 2011.

Bronfenbrenner U. The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1979.

Bronfenbrenner U. Ecological model of human development. International Encyclopaedia of Education. 2nd ed.1993; (3).

State Statistical Office. Estimation of population on 30.06.2010 and 31.12.2010 according to the gender by municipality and statistical regions. Skopje: State Statistical Office, Republic of Macedonia, 2011. Accessed November 20, 2011.

Karolinska Institute. ABUEL, Abuse of elderly in Europe. Stockholm: Karolinska Institute, 2009. Accessed October 9, 2011.

National Institute for Health and Welfare THL. Prevalence study of violence and abuse against older women (AVOW). Helsinki: National Institute for Health and Welfare THL, 2010. Accessed October 9, 2011.

Krsteska R. Mini Mental Test kaj Alchajmerova i vaskularna demencija. [Mini Mental Test in Alzheimer's and vascular dementia.]. Makedonski Medicinski Pregled [Macedonian Medical Review]. Skopje: University “Ss Cyril and Methodiusâ€, 2007.

Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. Understanding elder abuse. 2013. Accessed February 7, 2014.

Peri K, Fanslow J, Hand J, Parson J. Elder abuse and neglect: exploration of risk and protective factors. Wellington: Families Commission. 2004. Accessed February 13, 2012.

Naughton C, Drennan J, Treacy MP, et al., eds. Abuse and Neglect of Older People in Ireland: Report on the National Study of Elder Abuse and Neglect. Dublin: University College Dublin, 2010.

Price T, King PS, Dillard RL, Bulot JJ. Elder Financial Exploitation: Implications for Future Policy and Research in Elder Mistreatment. West JEM. 2011; 12 (3):354-356.

Wilbur KH, Reynolds SL. Introducing a Framework for Defining Financial Abuse of the Elderly, Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect. 1997; 8(2): 61-80.

Namkee GC, Mayer J, Elder abuse, neglect and exploitation: risk factors and prevention strategies, Journal of Gerontological Social Work. 2000; 33(2).

National Research Council. Elder Mistreatment: Abuse, Neglect, and Exploitation in an Aging America. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2003.




How to Cite

Jordanova Peshevska D, Markovik M, Sethi D, Serafimovska E. Relationships and Community Risk Factors for Elder Abuse and Neglect: Findings from the First National Prevalence Study on Elder Maltreatment. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2014 Jun. 15 [cited 2022 Dec. 9];2(2):367-72. Available from:



Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

Most read articles by the same author(s)