Gender as Individual Risk Factor for Elderly Abuse: Findings from First National Prevalence Study in Macedonia
Keywords:elder abuse, elder neglect, gender, risk factor, Republic of Macedonia.
BACKGROUND:Â National prevalence study of elderly abuse in Macedonia intended to explore prevalence and risk factors of elder abuse and neglect. Â This paper is focused on influence of the gender as individual risk factor, according to ecological model, on elderly abuse and neglect.
METHODS: Culturally validated questionnaire and Geriatric Depression scale was used for data collection. Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test, was used for sample selection. Cutting score was 20. The research was conducted through face-to-face interviews on the sample of 960 respondents aged 65 and over.
RESULTS:Â Evidenced were 32% abused and neglected from representative sample, living in private households, 19% of abused was female. In Macedonian study women are 1.6 times often victims of abuse than man. Only female respondents reported sexual abuse.CONCLUSION: Being female is risk factor for being exposed on any type of abuse and neglect, excluding financial abuse.
Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block
Eurostat. The life of women and men in Europe. Statistical portrait. Luxembourg: Office of the Official Publications of European Communities, 2008.
European Parliament. Report on the role of women in an ageing society: Committee on Women's Rights and Gender Equality, 2010.
Active ageing: a policy framework. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002 (WHO/NMH/NPH/02.8).
Krug E et al., eds. World report on violence and health. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002. http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/violence/world_report/en. Accessed 27, June 2012.
World Health Organization. Definition of an older or elderly person. Geneva, WHO, 2012. www. who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/en/index.html. Accessed 29 November, 2012.
WHO/INPEA. Missing voices: views of older persons on elder abuse. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2002/WHO_NMH_VI P_02.1.pdf. Accessed 12 December, 2011.
National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse & MetLife Mature Market Institute. The essentials: preventing elder abuse. New York, 2012. https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/essentials/mmi-preventing-elder-abuse-essentials.pdf. Accessed 8 October, 2012.
Ð—Ð´Ñ€ÑƒÐ¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ðµ Ð·Ð° ÐµÐ¼Ð°Ð½Ñ†Ð¸Ð¿Ð°Ñ†Ð¸Ñ˜Ð°, ÑÐ¾Ð»Ð¸Ð´Ð°Ñ€Ð½Ð¾ÑÑ‚ Ð¸ ÐµÐ´Ð½Ð°ÐºÐ²Ð¾ÑÑ‚ Ð½Ð° Ð¶ÐµÐ½Ð¸Ñ‚Ðµ Ð½Ð° Ð Ðœ - Ð•Ð¡Ð• [Association for Emancipation, Solidarity and Equality of Women in the Republic of Macedonia]. (2006). Ð–Ð¸Ð²Ð¾Ñ‚Ð¾Ñ‚ Ð²Ð¾ ÑÐµÐ½ÐºÐ° [Life in shadow]. Skopje, Macedonia: Author. http://www.semejnonasilstvo.org.mk/Root/mak/_docs/Zivot%20vo%20senka%20-%20broshura.pdf. Accessed Jun 12, 2012.
Bronfenbrenner U. Ecological model of human development. In: Husen T, Postlethwaite TN, eds. International Encyclopaedia of Education (2nd ed., vol. 3). Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1993:1643â€“1647.
ABUEL, abuse of elderly in Europe. The Project. Luxembourg, ABUEL, EU Executive Agency for Health and Consumers, 2009. abuel.org/project.html. Accessed 9 October 2011.
National Institute for Health and Welfare. Prevalence study of violence and abuse against older women (AVOW). Helsinki, National Institute for Health and Welfare, 2011. http://www.thl.fi/avow. Accessed 9 October, 2011.
Sheik JI, Yesavage JA. Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS): recent evidence and development of a shorter version. In: Brink TL, ed. Clinical gerontology: a guide to assessment and intervention. New York, Haworth Press, 1986:165â€“173.
Raspopovic ED. Gerijatrijska skala za depresiju (Kratka Forma) [Geriatric Depression Scale (short form)]. Belgrade, Clinical Centre of Serbia (no date). http://www.stanford.edu/~yesavage/Serbian.html. Accessed 20 October, 2011.
State Statistical Office. Estimation of population on 30.06.2010 and 31.12.2010 according to the gender by municipality and statistical regions. Skopje, State Statistical Office, Republic of Macedonia, 2011. http://www.stat.gov.mk/publikacii/126.96.36.199.pdf (in Macedonian). Accessed 20 November, 2011.
AÐ´Ñ€ÐµÑÐ°Ñ€ Ð½Ð° Ð¾Ð¿ÑˆÑ‚Ð¸Ð½Ð¸ Ð²Ð¾ Ð ÐµÐ¿ÑƒÐ±Ð»Ð¸ÐºÐ° ÐœÐ°ÐºÐµÐ´Ð¾Ð½Ð¸Ñ˜Ð°. [Address book municipalities in Macedonia]Skopje, Macedonian Centre for International Cooperation, 2006.
Krsteska R. Mini Mental Test kaj Alchajmerova i vaskularna demencija. [Mini Mental Test in Alzheimerâ€™s and vascular dementia.] Makedonski Medicinski Pregled [Macedonian Medical Review], 2007, 1â€“3:1â€“96.
Kurlowicz L, Wallace M. The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Hartford Institute for Geriatric Nursing, 1999 (Try This: Best Practices in Nursing Care to Older Adults, No. 3, January1999).http://www.dhs.state.or.us/spd/tools/cm/aps/assessment/mini_mental.pdf. Accessed 16 January, 2013.
The Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). London, Alzheimerâ€™s Society, 2012. http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/site/scripts/documents_info.php?documentID =121. Accessed 9 October, 2012.
Field Andy, Discovering Statistics Using SPSS for Windows: Advanced Techniques for Beginners. SAGE Publications, 2000.
Lowenstein, A, et al. Is elder abuse and neglect a social phenomenon? Data from the first national prevalence survey in Israel. Journal of Elder Abuse and Neglect, 2009. 21:253â€“277. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08946560902997629. Accessed October 4, 2012.
Namkee, G.C. & Mayer, J. Elder abuse, neglect and exploitation: risk factors and prevention strategies. Journal of gerontological social work, 2000. 33:2. www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/101300/J083v33n02_02#previev Accessed October 11, 2011.
Bonie, R.J. & Wallace R.B. (Eds.). Elder Mistreatment. Abuse, Neglect and Exploitation in an Aging America. Washington DC, Washington: The national Academies Press, 2003. http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=10406&page=R1. Accessed April 15, 2013.
Barker, N.N., & Himchak, M.V. Environmental issues affecting elder abuse victims in their reception of community based services. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 2006. 48(1-2):233â€“255.
Marmolejo II. Elder abuse in the family in Spain. Valencia: The Queen Sofia Center Study, 2008. www.inpea.net/images/Spain_Report_2008_Elder.pdf. Accessed September 21, 2012.
Age Concern New Zealand 2012, www.ageconcern.org.nz. Accessed September 15, 2012.
The 2004 Survey of State Adult Protective Services: Abuse of Adults 60+. National Committee for the Prevention of Elder Abuse and NAPSA. 2004. http://www.napsa-now.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/2-14-06-FINAL-60+REPORT.pdfAccessed October 18, 2013.
Ajdukovic M, Ogresta J & Rusac S. Family Violence and Health Among Elderly in Croatia, Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma, 2009. 18:3, 261-279.http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10926770902835873. Accessed November 15, 2013.
Biggs S, Manthorpe J, Tinker A, Doyle M & Erens B.Mistreatment of Older People in the United Kingdom: Findings from the First National Prevalence Study, Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect, 2009, 21:1, 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08946560802571870. Accessed May 11, 2013.
Sethi D et al., eds. European report on preventing elder maltreatment. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2011. http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/144676/e95110. Pdf. Accessed 29 November 2012.
Report of the UNECE Ministerial Conference on Ageing. â€œA society for all ages: challenges and opportunitiesâ€. Geneva, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, 2007 http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/pau/_docs/ece/2007/ECE _AC30_2007_2.e.pdf. Accessed 29, November 2012.
Belinger E , Davis C, Fulmore C. Elder abuse: what professionals need to know. Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work, 2010. http://www.socialwork.pitt.edu/downloads/Elder%20Abuse%20 Project.pdf. Accessed 10, February 2012.
National Center on Elder Abuse-- - "A Response to the Abuse of Vulnerable Adults: - The 2000 Survey of State Adult Protective Services": - http://www.elderabusecenter.org/whatnew/vulnerableadults.pdfAccessed January 16, 2014.
McCreadie C. Elder abuse: update on research. London, Age Concern and Institute of Gerontology, Kingâ€™s College, 1996.
Bennett G, Kingston P, Penhale, B. The dimensions of elder abuse: perspectives for practitioners. London, Macmillan, 1997.
Hudson MF. Elder mistreatment: its relevance to older women. Journal of the American Medical Womenâ€™s Association. 1997; 52:142â€“146, 158.
Phillips LR. Domestic violence and aging women. Geriatric Nursing. 2000; 21:188â€“193.
Brandl B, Cook-Daniels L. Domestic abuse in later life. Violence Against Women Online Resources, 2002 http://www.vawnet.org/ DomesticViolence/Research/VAWnetDocs/AR_later-life.pdf. Accessed June 6, 2005.
How to Cite
All rights reserved.