Frequency of Electrocardiographic Changes in Trained Athletes in the Republic of Macedonia


  • Ivanka Karagjozova Institute of Physiology and Anthropology, Medical Faculty, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Skopje
  • Suncica Petrovska Institute of Physiology and Anthropology, Medical Faculty, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Skopje
  • Slobodan Nikolic Institute of Physiology and Anthropology, Medical Faculty, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Skopje
  • Vesela Maleska-Ivanovska Institute of Physiology and Anthropology, Medical Faculty, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Skopje
  • Ljubica Georgievska-Ismail University Clinic of Cardiology, Medical Faculty, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje, Skopje



trained athletes, 12-lead electrocardiography, screening for cardiovascular diseases


BACKGROUND: The use of a 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) in the screening of young athletes still has some controversies regarding the cost-benefit of the procedure.

AIM: We wanted to identify types and frequency of ECG changes in athletes in the Republic of Macedonia as well as its relation to age, gender, duration, frequency and type of sports.

METHODS: The study population included 256 trained amateur athletes who were prospectively examined.

RESULTS: The 12-lead ECG patterns were considered normal in 19.9% of athletes, with common training-related changes found in 48.8%, while abnormal and borderline ECG changes were present in 6.6% and 24.6% of athletes respectively. ECG changes were more frequent in males than in females without significant difference regarding the age of athletes. There was a significant correlation between more pronounced ECG changes and longer duration of sports engagement, higher duration of sports activity and type of sport practised.

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of abnormal ECG patterns in athletes in RM which could indicate structural cardiac disease and greater risk of sudden cardiac death exist in a proportion that should implicate mandatory 12-lead ECG in the pre-participation screening program and further on the regular annual basis.


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How to Cite

Karagjozova I, Petrovska S, Nikolic S, Maleska-Ivanovska V, Georgievska-Ismail L. Frequency of Electrocardiographic Changes in Trained Athletes in the Republic of Macedonia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2017 Oct. 6 [cited 2023 Mar. 21];5(6):708-13. Available from:



A - Basic Science

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