The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Osteoporosis among a Saudi Female Diabetic Population


  • Ibrahim Abdulrazag AL-Homood Medical Specialties Department, Rheumatology Section, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh
  • Iman Sheshah Diabetic Center, King Salman Hospital, Riyadh
  • Abdel Gaffar A. Mohammed Medical Specialties Department, Rheumatology Section, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh
  • Gasim I. Gasim Alneelain University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Khartoum



osteoporosis, osteopenia, Saudi women, diabetes mellitus



AIM: This study aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of osteoporosis [lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN)] among patients with type 2 diabetes at King Salman Hospital.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred seventy patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in the period from the 1st of January until the 1st of July 2015. Patient selection was based on self-report of the previous diagnosis by a physician, being on an antidiabetic agent, or a fasting glucose of 126 mg/dl as per the American Diabetes Association criteria. A dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan with the bone mineral density (BMD) categorization based on the WHO cut of levels of T-scores and determination of vitamin D levels were performed. A detailed questionnaire was used to collect demographic data.

RESULTS: Out of 170 participants, 50 (29.4%) were diagnosed as having osteoporosis, while 68 (40%) were diagnosed with osteopenia. Age was determined as a risk factor for a decreased BMD in patients with osteopenia (odds ratio (OR) = 1.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (1.0-1.1), p = 0.039) and osteoporosis (OR = 1.1, CI = 1.0-1.2, p < 0.001). Similarly, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) increased the risk of decreased BMD in osteopenia (OR = 2.6; CI = 1.0-6.7; p = 0.023) as well as osteoporosis, (OR = 3.8; CI = 1.3-10.9; p = 0.013), while vitamin D deficiency increased the risk of osteopenia OR = 3.0; CI = 1.2-7.2; p = 0.012). Increased BMI decreased the risk of both osteopenia and osteoporosis (OR = 0.9; CI = 0.9-0.99; p = 0.031 vs. OR = 0.9; CI = 0.80-0.95; p = 0.003).

CONCLUSION: Advanced age, OHA and vitamin D deficiency are determinants of decreased BMD in Saudi women with type 2 diabetes, while an increased BMI protects against low BMD.


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How to Cite

AL-Homood IA, Sheshah I, Mohammed AGA, Gasim GI. The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Osteoporosis among a Saudi Female Diabetic Population. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2017 Apr. 8 [cited 2021 Oct. 19];5(2):177-81. Available from:



B - Clinical Sciences