Schizophrenia as Potential Trigger for Melanoma Development and Progression! The Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Oncology (P.N.E.O) Network!


  • Georgi Tchernev Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR), Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic Surgery, General Skobelev Nr 79, Sofia 1606; Onkoderma, Policlinic for Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, General Skobelev 26, Sofia 1407
  • Ilia Lozev Medical Institute of the Ministry of Interior, Surgery, Sofia
  • Ivanka Temelkova Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR), Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic Surgery, General Skobelev Nr 79, Sofia 1606
  • Svetoslav Chernin Medical Institute of the Ministry of Interior, Common, Vascular and Abdominal Surgery, Sofia
  • Irina Yungareva Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior (MVR), Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic Surgery, General Skobelev Nr 79, Sofia 1606



Malignant melanoma, Antipsychotics, Levodopa, Advancing


BACKGROUND: Skin, nervous tissue, dopamine and melanoma share a common neuroectodermal origin. Hence, processes that modulate nervous tissue formation, patient mental status, motor regulation of individuals, and skin cancerogenesis are inextricably linked. Psycho-neuro-endocrine oncology (or dermato-oncology), i.e. P.N.E.O., is a new model or trend in medicine and science presented for the first time in the world literature by us, that aims to examine the relationship between the mental state, the hormones and the malignant transformation. Schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease are the two main patterns of disease where the main symptoms are related to dopamine levels in the human body. According to our analyses of the available literature, the amount of dopamine is related to the incidence of melanocytic or non-melanocytic cutaneous tumours in patients with central nervous system diseases and those affecting the motor function and coordination. Such patterns of interaction are extremely indicative of the elucidation of the ubiquitous hypothesis or statement: “My illness is on a mental basis, caused by stress ...â€

CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 44-year-old patient with untreated schizophrenia for approximately 25 years, associated with advanced acral localised melanoma. Schizophrenia is generally associated with a higher level of dopamine, which is also a key precursor to melanin synthesis. After a careful analysis of all literature on melanoma in patients with 1) treated and untreated schizophrenia, 2) those with untreated and untreated forms of Parkinson’s disease, it would be logical to conclude that the high level of dopamine in the described patient groups is a risk factor for the development of melanoma.

CONCLUSIONS: The possible mechanisms for the occurrence of malignant melanoma within the so-called psycho/neuro/endocrine oncology (P.N.E.O.), as well as the effective methods of prevention, are under discussion.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Millier A, Schmidt U, Angermeyer M, Chauhan D, Murthy V, Toumi M, Cadi-Soussi N. Humanistic burden in schizophrenia: a literature review. J Psychiatr Res. 2014; 54:85-93. PMid:24795289

Werner F, Cove-as R. Safety of antipsychotic drugs: focus on therapeutic and adverse effects. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2014; 13(8):1031-42. PMid:24975932

Krummel T, Neifeld JP, Taub N. Effects of dopamine agonists and antagonists on murine melanoma: correlation with dopamine binding activity. Cancer. 1982; 49(6):1178-84.<1178::AID-CNCR2820490619>3.0.CO;2-H

Bertoni J, Arlette P, Fernandez H, Fitzer-Attas C, Frei K, Hassan N, Isaacson H, Lew F, Molho E, Ondo G, Phillips J, Singer C, Sutton P, Wolf J. Increased melanoma risk in Parkinson disease: a prospective clinicopathological study. Arch Neurol. 2010; 67(3):347-52. PMid:20212233

Inzelberg R, Rabey JM, Melamed E, Djaldetti R, Reches A, Badarny S, Hassin-Baer S, Cohen O, Trau H, Aharon-Peretz J, Milo R, Schwartz M, Huberman M, Gilead L, Barchana M, Liphshiz I, Fitzer-Attas C, Giladi N. High prevalence of malignant melanoma in Israeli patients with Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2011; 118(8):1199-207. PMid:21298300

Mortensen P. The occurrence of cancer in first admitted schizophrenic patients. Schizophr Res. 1994; 12(3):185-94.

Craig S, Earnshaw C, Virós A. Ultraviolet light and melanoma. J Pathol. 2018; 244(5):578-585. PMid:29380860

Tchernev G, Orfanos CE. Downregulation of cell cycle modulators p21, p27, p53, Rb and proapoptotic Bcl-2-related proteins Bax and Bak in cutaneous melanoma is associated with worse patient prognosis: preliminary findings. J Cutan Pathol. 2007; 34(3):247-56. PMid:17302609

Fecker LF, Geilen CC, Tchernev G, Trefzer U, Assaf C, Kurbanov BM, Schwarz C, Daniel PT, Eberle J. Loss of proapoptotic Bcl-2-related multidomain proteins in primary melanomas is associated with poor prognosis. J Invest Dermatol. 2006; 126(6):1366-71. PMid:16528364

Hendi A, Brodland D, Zitelli J. Melanocytes in long-standing sun-exposed skin: quantitative analysis using the MART-1 immunostain. Arch Dermatol. 2006; 142(7):871-6. PMid:16847203

Watson M, Holman D, Maguire-Eisen M. Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Its Impact on Skin Cancer Risk. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2016; 32(3):241–254. PMid:27539279 PMCid:PMC5036351

Herrero Hernández E. Pigmentation genes link Parkinson's disease to melanoma, opening a window on both etiologies. Med Hypotheses. 2009; 72(3):280-4. PMid:19027242

Pho N, Leachman A. Genetics of pigmentation and melanoma predisposition. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2010; 145(1):37-45. PMid:20197744

Potrony M, Badenas C, Aguilera P, Puig-Butille J, Carrera C, Malvehy J. Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma. Ann Transl Med. 2015; 3(15): 210. PMid:26488006 PMCid:PMC4583600

Fiala K, Whetteckey J, Manyam V. Malignant melanoma and levodopa in Parkinson's disease: causality or coincidence? Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2003; 9(6):321-7.

Disse M, Reich H, Lee P, Schram S. A Review of the Association Between Parkinson Disease and Malignant Melanoma. Dermatol Surg. 2016; 42(2):141-6. PMid:26771684

Perez-Lloret S, Rascol O. Dopamine receptor agonists for the treatment of early or advanced Parkinson's disease. CNS Drugs. 2010; 24(11):941-68. PMid:20932066



How to Cite

Tchernev G, Lozev I, Temelkova I, Chernin S, Yungareva I. Schizophrenia as Potential Trigger for Melanoma Development and Progression! The Psycho-Neuro-Endocrine-Oncology (P.N.E.O) Network!. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2018 Aug. 16 [cited 2021 Jun. 25];6(8):1442-5. Available from:



C- Case Reports

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>