Acrocyanosis – A Symptom with Many Facettes

Authors

  • Uwe Wollina Städtisches Klinikum Dresden - Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Dresden, Sachsen
  • André Koch Städtisches Klinikum Dresden - Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Dresden, Sachsen
  • Dana Langner Städtisches Klinikum Dresden - Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Dresden, Sachsen
  • Gesina Hansel Städtisches Klinikum Dresden - Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Dresden, Sachsen
  • Birgit Heinig Städtisches Klinikum Dresden - Center of Physical and Rehabilitative Medicine, Dresden
  • Torello Lotti University G. Marconi of Rome - Dermatology and Venereology, Rome
  • Georgi Tchernev Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Dermatologic Surgery, Medical Institute of Ministry of Interior, Sofia; Onkoderma, Policlinic for Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery, Sofia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2018.035

Keywords:

Acrocyanosis, hands and feet, vascular disorders, Raynaud syndrome, Connective tissue diseases, Adverse drug reactions, Tumors

Abstract

Acrocyanosis is an uncommon complaint belonging to the acro-syndromes. It typically presents with coolness and bluish discolourations of hands, feet, ears, nose, lips and nipple. The most frequently affected parts of the body are the hands. This review discusses physical factors, vascular disorders, infectious diseases, haematological disorders, solid tumours genetic disorders, drugs, eating disorders, and spinal disease presenting as or leading to acrocyanosis.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

References

Kurklinsky AK, Miller VM, Rooke TW. Acrocyanosis: the Flying Dutchman. Vasc Med. 2011; 16(4):288-301. https://doi.org/10.1177/1358863X11398519 PMid:21427140 PMCid:PMC3156491

Sampogna F, Camaioni DB, Giampetruzzi AR, Corona R, Ruzzi L, Silvestri L, Didona B. Chronic idiopathic acrocyanosis and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (p.Ala222Val) and A1298C (p.Glu429Ala) polymorphisms. Eur J Dermatol. 2013; 23(3):356-61. PMid:23816603

Wollina U. Thermal and mechanical skin injuries. CME Dermatol. 2009; 4(1):4–18.

Singh LC. High altitude dermatology. Indian J Dermatol. 2017; 62(1):59-65. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.198050 PMid:28216727 PMCid:PMC5286755

Linnemann B, Erbe M. Raynaud's phenomenon - assessment and differential diagnoses. Vasa. 2015; 44(3):166-77. https://doi.org/10.1024/0301-1526/a000426 PMid:26098320

Wollina U, Verma SB. Acute digital gangrene in a newborn. Arch Dermatol. 2007; 143(1):121-2. https://doi.org/10.1001/archderm.143.1.121 PMid:17224560

Wollina U, Hein G. Lupus erythematosus: uncommon presentations. Clin Dermatol. 2005; 23(5):470-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2005.01.017 PMid:16179181

Ahrazoglu M, Moinzadeh P, Hunzelmann N. [Differential diagnoses of Raynaud's phenomenon]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2014; 139(20):1064-9. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0034-1370036 PMid:24801303

Kellar J, Trigger C. Thoracic outlet syndrome with secondary Paget Schröetter Syndrome: a rare case of effort-induced thrombosis of the upper extremity. West J Emerg Med. 2014; 15(4):364-5. https://doi.org/10.5811/westjem.2014.4.21521 PMid:25035731 PMCid:PMC4100831

Norinsky AB, Espinosa J, Kianmajd M, DiLeonardo F. Painless acrocyanosis: Paget-Schroetter syndrome secondary to thoracic outlet obstruction from muscle hypertrophy. Am J Emerg Med. 2016; 34(7):1323.e1-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2015.11.050 PMid:26763826

Gheita TA, Samad HM, Mahdy MA, Kamel AB. Pattern of primary vasculitis with peripheral ischemic manifestations: report of a case series and role of vascular surgery. Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2014; 10(2):126-30. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573397110666150120103559 PMid:25599681

Evans-Gilbert T. Chikungunya and neonatal immunity: Fatal vertically transmitted Chikungunya infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017; 96(4):913-915. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0491

Penouil MH, Estève E, Millotte B, Bressieux JM. [Parvovirus B19 atypical acrosyndrome]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1997; 124(3):254-6. PMid:9686060

Cormier-Lebreton MN, Célérier P, Pasquiou C. [Autochthonal leprosy]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1995; 122(9):606-8. PMid:8745686

Wollina U, Boldt S, Heinig B, Schönlebe J. Atypical acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans Herxheimer. Clin Res Dermatol Open Access. 2015; 2(2):1-3. https://doi.org/10.15226/2378-1726/2/3/00122

Gregory GP, Farrell A, Brown S. Cold agglutinin disease complicated by acrocyanosis and necrosis. Ann Hematol. 2017; 96(3):509-510. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00277-016-2905-6 PMid:28050677

Lesesve JF. Acrocyanosis revealing chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Clin Case Rep. 2016; 4(4):404-5. https://doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.529 PMid:27099738 PMCid:PMC4831394

Solak Y, Aksoy S, Kilickap S, Celik I. Acrocyanosis as a presenting symptom of Hodgkin lymphoma. Am J Hematol. 2006; 81(2):151-2. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.20479 PMid:16432859

Cozzani E, Iurlo A, Merlo G, Cattaneo D, Burlando M, Pierri I, Gugliotta L, Parodi A. Essential thrombocythemia: The dermatologic point of view. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2015; 15(12):739-47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2015.08.086 PMid:26432058

Marinho FS, Pirmez R, Nogueira R, Cuzzi T, Sodré CT, Ramos-e-Silva M. Cutaneous manifestations in POEMS syndrome: Case report and review. Case Rep Dermatol. 2015; 7(1):61-9. https://doi.org/10.1159/000381302 PMid:26034475 PMCid:PMC4448059

Kumar P, Ghosh S, Tanwar HS, Gupta AK. Acrocyanosis in a young adult: a rare presentation of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma. BMJ Case Rep. 2014; 2014. pii: bcr2013202845.

Hari Kumar KV, Kumar A, Tomar D, Gupta AK. Acrocyanosis with intrahepatic carcinoid tumor. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2014; 5(2):221-3. https://doi.org/10.4103/2229-5178.131139 PMid:24860770 PMCid:PMC4030363

Spinelli GP, Miele E, Lo Russo G, Rossi B, Tomao S. Acrocyanosis, digital ischemia and acronecrosis as first manifestations of endometrial adenocarcinoma: Case presentation and literature review. Int J Gynecol Clin Pract. 2016; 2:113. https://doi.org/10.15344/2394-4986/2016/113

Poszepczynska-Guigné E, Viguier M, Chosidow O, Orcel B, Emmerich J, Dubertret L. Paraneoplastic acral vascular syndrome: epidemiologic features, clinical manifestations, and disease sequelae. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002; 47(1):47-52. https://doi.org/10.1067/mjd.2002.120474 PMid:12077580

Yarbrough K, Danko C, Krol A, Zonana J, Leitenberger S. The importance of chilblains as a diagnostic clue for mild Aicardi-Goutières syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2016; 170(12):3308-3312. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.37944 PMid:27604406

YiÅŸ U, Polat Ä°, Karakaya P, AyanoÄŸlu M, Hiz AS. Importance of acrocyanosis in delayed walking. J Pediatr Neurosci. 2015; 10(1):80-1. PMid:25878756 PMCid:PMC4395958

Das S, Maiti A. Acrocyanosis: an overview. Indian J Dermatol. 2013; 58(6):417-20. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.119946 PMid:24249890 PMCid:PMC3827510

Jorquera-Barquero E, Súarez-Marrero MC, Fernández Girón F, Borrero Martín JJ. Oxalosis and livedo reticularis. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2013; 104(9):815-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ad.2012.04.019 PMid:23103120

Fleming C, Rennie A, Fallowfield M, McHenry PM. Cutaneous manifestations of fucosidosis. Br J Dermatol. 1997; 136(4):594-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1997.tb02149.x PMid:9155966

Wollina U, Hansel G, Gruner M, Schönlebe J, Heinig B, Köstler E. Painful ANA-positive scleroderma-like disease with acral ulcerations: a case of chronic gangrenous ergotism. Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2007; 6(3):148-52. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534734607305308 PMid:17909173

Cifuentes M D, Blanco L S, Ramírez F C. [Ergotism due to simultaneous use of ergot alkaloids and high activity antiretroviral therapy]. Rev Med Chil. 2016; 144(6):807-12. https://doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872016000600017 PMid:27598502

Zhang X, Jin J, Cai C, Zheng R, Wang Y, Xu Y. Amphotericin B liposome-induced acrocyanosis and elevated serum creatinine. Indian J Pharmacol. 2016; 48(3):321-3. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.182889 PMid:27298506 PMCid:PMC4900009

Ozaras R, Yemisen M, Mete B, Mert A, Ozturk R, Tabak F. Acrocyanosis developed with amphotericin B deoxycholate but not with amphotericin B lipid complex. Mycoses. 2007; 50(3):242. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0507.2007.01360.x PMid:17472626

Masuda H, Mori M, Araki N, Kuwabara S. Bilateral foot acrocyanosis in an interferon-β-treated MS patient. Intern Med. 2016; 55(3):319. https://doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.55.6251 PMid:26831034

Yildirim B, Karagoz U, Acar E, Beydilli H, Nese Yeniceri E, Tanriverdi O, Alatas OD, Kasap Åž. A case report of prilocaine-induced methemoglobinemia after liposuction procedure. Case Rep Emerg Med. 2015; 2015:282347. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/282347

Karabacak K, Kadan M, Kaya E, Durgun B, Arslan G, Doganci S, Bolcal C, Demirkilic U. Oxaliplatin induced digital ischemia and necrosis. Case Rep Vasc Med. 2015; 2015:248748. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/248748

Strumia R. Skin signs in anorexia nervosa. Dermatoendocrinol. 2009; 1(5):268-70. https://doi.org/10.4161/derm.1.5.10193 PMid:20808514 PMCid:PMC2836432

Mitchell JE, Crow S. Medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2006; 19(4):438-43. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.yco.0000228768.79097.3e PMid:16721178

Takahashi N, Kita K, Nagumo K, Yamanaka I, Hirayama K. ["Acro-erythro-cyanosis"--peculiar vasomotor symptoms due to cervical hernial myelopathy]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 1990; 30(2):151-6. PMid:2350926

Published

2018-01-10

How to Cite

1.
Wollina U, Koch A, Langner D, Hansel G, Heinig B, Lotti T, Tchernev G. Acrocyanosis – A Symptom with Many Facettes. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2018 Jan. 10 [cited 2021 Apr. 16];6(1):208-12. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/oamjms.2018.035

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >>