Tumour Necrosis Factor-Α, Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-6 Serum Levels and Its Correlation with Pain Severity in Chronic Tension-Type Headache Patients: Analysing Effect of Dexketoprofen Administration


  • Aldy Safruddin Rambe The University of North Sumatra, Department of Neurology, Medan
  • Hasan Sjahrir The University of North Sumatra, Department of Neurology, Medan
  • Moh Hasan Machfoed Airlangga University, Department of Neurology, Medan




chronic tension-type headache, Dexketoprofen, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α


AIM: The purpose of this study is to see the effect of Dexketoprofen on TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 serum levels in Chronic Tension-Type Headache (CTTH) patients and its correlation with pain severity.

METHOD: The study subjects were recruited consecutively from the study population. Venous blood was taken at baseline to measure serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 and after ten consecutive days of Dexketoprofen 25 mg once daily.

RESULTS: Twenty three subjects participated in this study, 3 male (13.0%) and 20 female (87%). A significant difference between NRS score at baseline and after treatment (4.86 ± 1.82 vs. 1.96 ± 1.40, p = 0.001) was found. No significant difference found between baseline and after treatment TNF-α (1.48 ± 0.65 pg/dl vs. 1.48 ± 0.63 pg/dl, p = 0.963), IL-1 (0.16 ± 0.80 pg/dl vs. 0.26 ± 0.31 pg/dl, p = 0.168) nor IL-6 serum levels (1.06 ± 0.83 pg/dl vs. 1.04 ± 0.81 pg/dl, p = 0.915). A weak negative (R = -0.266) non significant correlation (p = 0.219) was found between NRS score and TNF-α. A positive weak negative (R = 0.221) non significant correlation (p = 0.311) between NRS score and IL-1. NRS score and IL-6 had a negative very weak (R = -0.019) non significant negative correlation (p = 0.931).

CONCLUSIONS: Dexketoprofen decreased pain intensity significantly (p = 0.001), but had no effect on TNF-α IL-1 nor IL-6 serum levels. NRS score had a weak and non significant negative correlation with TNF-α, a weak and non significant positive correlation with IL-1, and a very weak and non significant negative correlation with IL-6 serum levels.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

Author Biographies

Aldy Safruddin Rambe, The University of North Sumatra, Department of Neurology, Medan

Department of Neurology

Hasan Sjahrir, The University of North Sumatra, Department of Neurology, Medan

Department of Neurology


Bendtsen L, Jensen R. Tension-Type Headache. Neurol Clin. 2009;27: 525–535. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2008.11.010 PMid:19289230 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncl.2008.11.010

Stovner LJ, Hagen K, Jensen R, Katsavara Z, Lipton RB, Scher A, et al. The global burden of headache: a documentation of headache prevalence and disability worldwide. Cephalalgia. 2007; 27:193–210. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2982.2007.01288.x PMid:17381554 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2982.2007.01288.x

Bo SH, Davidsen EM, Gulbrandsen P, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels in migraine, tension-type headache and cervicogenic headache. Cephalalgia. 2008;29(3): 365-372. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2982.2008.01727.x PMid:19175774 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2982.2008.01727.x

Koçer A, Memişoğullari R, Domaç FM, Ilhan A, Koçer E, Okuyucu S, et al. IL-6 levels in migraine patients receiving topiramate. Pain Pract. 2010;9: 375–379. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-2500.2009.00301.x PMid:19622115 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-2500.2009.00301.x

Backonja MJ, Coe CL, Muller DA, Schell K. Altered cytokine levels in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of chronic pain patients. Journal of Neuroimmunology. 2008;195(1-2):157-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2008.01.005 PMid:18325600 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2008.01.005

Vedova CD, Cathcart S, Dohnalek A, Lee V, Hutchinson MR, Immink MA, et al. Peripheral interleukin-1β levels are elevated in chronic tension-type headache patients. Pain Res Manag. 2013;18:301-306. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/796161 PMid:23957020 PMCid:PMC3917793 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/796161

Barbanoj MJ, Antonijoan RM, Gich I. Clinical pharmacokinetics of dexketoprofen. Clinical Pharmacokinet. 2011; 40(4): 245-262. https://doi.org/10.2165/00003088-200140040-00002 PMid:11368291 DOI: https://doi.org/10.2165/00003088-200140040-00002

Barden J, Derry S, McQuay HJ, Moore RA. Single dose oral ketoprofen and dexketoprofen for acute postoperative pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(4):CD007355. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd007355.pub2 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007355.pub2

Tanure MTA, Gomez RS, Hurtado RCL, Teixera AL, Domingues RB. Increased serum levels of brain-derived neurotropic factorduring migraine attacks: a pilot study. J Headache Pain. 2010;11:427–430. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10194-010-0233-0 PMid:20556464 PMCid:PMC3452273 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10194-010-0233-0

Tatsumi M, Groshan K, Blakely RD, Richelson E. Pharmacological profile of antidepressants and related compounds at human monoamine transporters. European Journal of Pharmacology. 1997;340(2–3): 249–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2999(97)01393-9 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2999(97)01393-9

Rozen D. Treatment of tension-type headache with botox: a review of the literature. Mt Sinai J Med. 2010; 73: 493-98.

Abbas AK, Lichtman AH, Pillai S. Cellular and Molecular Immunology. 6th ed. Saunders Elsevier, 2007.

Punke MA, Friederich P. Dexketoprofen is a potent blocker of human Kv1.1 and Kv7.2/7.3 channels". Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2007;104 (5): 1256–1264. https://doi.org/10.1213/01.ane.0000260310.63117.a2 PMid:17456683 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1213/01.ane.0000260310.63117.a2

Quan N, Herkenham M. Connecting cytokines and brain: A review of current issues. Histol Histopatho. 2002;17: 273-288. PMid:11813877

Durham ZL, Durham PL. Interleukins IL-1B and IL-S Cause Sensitization of Trigeminal GanglionNeurons Leading to Changes in the Ganglion and Trigeminal Nucleus Caudalis Implications for Understanding their Role in Migraine Pathology. National Headache Foundation's 7th Headache Research Summit, 2009.

Contassot E, Beer HD, French LE. Interleukin-1, Inflammasomes, autoinflammation and the skin. Swiss Med Wkly. 2012;142:w13590. https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2012.13590 DOI: https://doi.org/10.4414/smw.2012.13590

D'Elia RV, Harrison K, Oyston PC, Lukaszewski RA, Clark GC. Targetting the "Cytokine Storm" for Therapeutic Benefit. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 2013; 20(3):319-327. https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00636-12 PMid:23283640 PMCid:PMC3592351 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1128/CVI.00636-12

Yan J, Melemedjian OK, Price TJ, Dusson G. Sensitization of dural afferents underlies migraine-related behavior following meningeal application of interleukin-6 (IL-6). Molecular Pain. 2012;8(6): 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-8069-8-6 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-8069-8-6

Neeb L, Hellen P, Boehnke C, Hoffmann J, Schuh-Hofer S, Dirnagl U, et al. IL-1b Stimulates COX-2 Dependent PGE2 Synthesis and CGRP Release in Rat Trigeminal Ganglia Cells. PLoS ONE 6(3). 2011: e17360. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017360 PMid:21394197 PMCid:PMC3048859 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017360



How to Cite

Rambe AS, Sjahrir H, Machfoed MH. Tumour Necrosis Factor-Α, Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-6 Serum Levels and Its Correlation with Pain Severity in Chronic Tension-Type Headache Patients: Analysing Effect of Dexketoprofen Administration. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2017 Feb. 6 [cited 2024 Jun. 17];5(1):54-7. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/oamjms.2017.024



B - Clinical Sciences

Most read articles by the same author(s)