Thyroid Function and 25 (OH) Vitamin D Level among Sudanese Women in Early Pregnancy
Keywords:vitamin D, thyroid function, pregnancy, Sudan
AIM: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Saad Abualila Hospital (Khartoum, Sudan) to evaluate the vitamin D levels and thyroid function among pregnant Sudanese women (132) in early pregnancy.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Saad Abualila hospital (Khartoum, Sudan) during the period from March to July 2015. Women who were in early pregnancy with a singleton pregnancy were approached to participate in the study after signing informed consent. A sample size of 132 participants was calculated guided by the normal interval of thyroid function in Sudanese women in the first trimester and not the level of 25(OH) vitamin D. The 25 - hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) vitamins levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on an Elecsys 2010 Analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany).
RESULTS: The mean (SD) of age, gravidity and gestational age was 27.6 (5.5) years, 2.2 (1.6) and 10.4 (2.2) weeks, respectively. The mean (SD) of the body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin was 27.1 (5.2) kg/m2 and 10.8 (1.1) g/dl, respectively. Median (interquartile) values of TSH, FT3, and FT4 were 1.164Â IU/ml (0.079 -2.177Â IU/ml), 4.639Â nmol/l (3.843 - 6.562Â nmol/l), and 16.86 pmol/l (13.02 - 31.48 pmol/l), respectively. There was no significant correlation between vitamin D levels and TSH, FT3 and FT4CONCLUSION: There is no correlation between 25 (OH) vitamin D levels and thyroid function during early pregnancy among Sudanese pregnant women, despite prevalent vitamin D deficiency among these women.
Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block
Holick MF. Sunlight, ultraviolet radiation, vitamin D and skin cancer: how much sunlight do we need? Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014; 810:1â€“16. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-0437-2_1
Green RJ, Samy G, Miqdady MS, El-Hodhod M, Akinyinka OO, Saleh G, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in Africa and the Middle East, despite year-round sunny days. S Afr Med J. 2015; 105(7):603â€“5. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAMJnew.7785
Jakobsen J, Knuthsen P. Stability of vitamin D in foodstuffs during cooking. Food Chem. 2014; 148:170â€“5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.10.043 PMid:24262542
Liu Y, Jin Q, Bao Y, Li S, Wang J, Qiu L. Investigation of the vitamin D nutritional status in women with gestational diabetes mellitus in Beijing. Lipids Health Dis. 2017; 16(1):22. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12944-017-0412-y PMid:28129773 PMCid:PMC5273824
Vondra K, StÃ¡rka L, Hampl R. Vitamin D and thyroid diseases. Physiol Res. 2015; 64(Suppl 2): S95â€“100. PMid:26680495
Bizzaro G, Shoenfeld Y. Vitamin D and autoimmune thyroid diseases: facts and unresolved questions. Immunol Res. 2015; 61(1â€“2):46â€“52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12026-014-8579-z PMid:25407646
van Driel M, Koedam M, Buurman CJ, Hewison M, Chiba H, Uitterlinden AG, et al. Evidence for auto/paracrine actions of vitamin D in bone: 1 -hydroxylase expression and activity in human bone cells. FASEB J. 2006; 20(13):2417â€“9. https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.06-6374fje PMid:17023519
Pols HAP, BirkenhÃ¤ger JC, Foekens JA, van Leeuwen JPTM. Vitamin D: A modulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1990; 37(6):873â€“6. https://doi.org/10.1016/0960-0760(90)90435-N
Ginde AA, Sullivan AF, Mansbach JM, Camargo CA, Jr. Vitamin D insufficiency in pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010; 202(5):436.e1-436.e8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2009.11.036 PMid:20060512 PMCid:PMC3784988
Pani MA, Regulla K, Segni M, Hofmann S, HÃ¼fner M, Pasquino AM, et al. A Polymorphism within the Vitamin D-Binding Protein Gene Is Associated with Graves' Disease but Not with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002; 87(6):2564â€“7. PMid:12050214
Tamer G, Arik S, Tamer I, Concert D. Relative Vitamin D Insufficiency in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis. Thyroid. 2011; 21(8):891â€“6. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2009.0200 PMid:21751884
Arslan MS, Topaloglu O, Ucan B, Karakose M, Karbek B, Total E, et al. Isolated vitamin D deficiency is not associated with nonthyroidal illness syndrome, but with thyroid autoimmunity. Scientific World Journal. 2015; 2015:239815.
Mackawy AMH, Al-Ayed BM, Al-Rashidi BM. Vitamin d deficiency and its association with thyroid disease. Int J Health Sci (Qassim). 2013; 7(3):267â€“75. https://doi.org/10.12816/0006054
Kim D. Low vitamin D status is associated with hypothyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Hormones. 2016; 15(3):385â€“93. https://doi.org/10.14310/horm.2002.1681
Yorulmaz G, GÃ¶nÃ¼llÃ¼ Emel, Akalin Aysen, Senol Murat, Yildiz Pinar, Tomus Narguler, et al. The effect of non-autoimmune thyrotoxicosis to vitamin D status during pregnancy; Biomedical Research. 2015; 27(1):225-4.
Mazokopakis EE, Papadomanolaki MG, Tsekouras KC, Evangelopoulos AD, Kotsiris DA, Tzortzinis AA. Is vitamin D related to pathogenesis and treatment of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Hell J Nucl Med. 2015; 18(3):222-7. PMid:26637501
DeLuca HF. Evolution of our understanding of vitamin D. Nutr Rev. 2008; 66(10 Suppl 2):S73â€“87. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2008.00105.x PMid:18844850
Li Y, Shan Z, Teng W, Yu X, Li Y, Fan C, et al. Abnormalities of maternal thyroid function during pregnancy affect neuropsychological development of their children at 25-30 months. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009; 72(6):825â€“9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.2009.03743.x PMid:19878506
Bodnar LM, Catov JM, Simhan HN, Holick MF, Powers RW, Roberts JM. Maternal vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of preeclampsia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007; 92(9):3517â€“22. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2007-0718 PMid:17535985 PMCid:PMC4288954
Negro R, Mestman JH. Thyroid disease in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 25(6):927â€“43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2011.07.010 PMid:22115167
Krassas GE, Poppe K, Glinoer D. Thyroid Function and Human Reproductive Health. Endocr Rev. 2010; 31(5):702â€“55. https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2009-0041 PMid:20573783
Alzaim M, Wood RJ. Vitamin D and gestational diabetes mellitus. Nutr Rev. 2013; 71(3):158â€“67. https://doi.org/10.1111/nure.12018 PMid:23452283
Smith MA, McHenry C, Oslapas R, Hofmann C, Hessel P, Paloyan E. Altered TSH levels associated with increased serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: a possible link between thyroid and parathyroid disease. Surgery. 1989; 106(6):987â€“91. PMid:2511635
Chailurkit L, Aekplakorn W, Ongphiphadhanakul B. High Vitamin D Status in Younger Individuals Is Associated with Low Circulating Thyrotropin. Thyroid. 2013; 23(1):25â€“30. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2012.0001 PMid:22931506
Glinoer D. The Regulation of Thyroid Function in Pregnancy: Pathways of Endocrine Adaptation from Physiology to Pathology. Endocr Rev. 1997; 18(3):404â€“33. https://doi.org/10.1210/edrv.18.3.0300 PMid:9183570
Elhaj ET, Adam I, Ahmed MA, Lutfi MF. Trimester-specific thyroid hormone reference ranges in Sudanese women. BMC Physiol. 2016; 16(1):5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12899-016-0025-0 PMid:27795209 PMCid:PMC5087113
Ponsonby A-L, Lucas RM, Lewis S, Halliday J. Vitamin D status during Pregnancy and Aspects of Offspring Health. Nutrients. 2010; 2(3):389â€“407. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2030389 PMid:22254029 PMCid:PMC3257641
Karras SN, Anagnostis P, Annweiler C, Naughton DP, Petroczi A, Bili E, et al. Maternal vitamin D status during pregnancy: the Mediterranean reality. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2014; 68(8):864â€“9. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2014.80 PMid:24824015
Xiao J-P, Zang J, Pei J-J, Xu F, Zhu Y, Liao X-P. Low Maternal Vitamin D Status during the Second Trimester of Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study in Wuxi, China. PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0117748. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0117748 PMid:25659105 PMCid:PMC4320063
Gbadegesin A, Sobande A, Adedeji O, Disu E, Korede O, Dosunmu A, et al. Maternal serum vitamin D levels and pregnancy outcomes: from Lagos, Nigeria. J Obstet Gynaecol (Lahore). 2017; 37(1):25â€“8. https://doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2016.1196483 PMid:27760474
Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, et al. Evaluation, Treatment, and Prevention of Vitamin D Deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011; 96(7):1911â€“30. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-0385 PMid:21646368
Zhao Y, Miao W, Li C, Yu X, Shan Z, Guan H, et al. Dynamic changes in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D during pregnancy and lack of effect on thyroid parameters. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e90161. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090161 PMid:24608866 PMCid:PMC3946450
Moon H-W, Chung H-J, Hur M, Yun Y-M. Vitamin D status and thyroid autoimmunity in Korean pregnant women. J Matern Neonatal Med. 2015; 28(18):2210â€“3. https://doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2014.982530 PMid:25373429
Mohammed Nizar B, Battikhi ZW, Battikhi BE. Correlation of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Thyroid Hormones in Pregnant Women in Amman-Jordan. J Microbiol Exp. 2017; 4(1):00099.
Smyth PPA, Wijeyaratne CN, Kaluarachi WN, Smith DF, Premawardhana LDKE, Parkes AB, et al. Sequential Studies on Thyroid Antibodies During Pregnancy. Thyroid. 2005:474â€“7. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2005.15.474 PMid:15929669
Musa IR, Gasim GI, Khan S, Ibrahim IA, Abo-Alazm H, Adam I. No Association between 25 (OH) Vitamin D Level And Hypothyroidism among Females. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2017; 5(2):126â€“30. https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2017.029
Lavalle G, Onori ME. Relationship between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Thyroid Hormones during Pregnancy in the North of Rome. Int J Sci Res. 2012; 3(10):2319â€“7064.
Wang X, Zynat J, Guo Y, Osiman R, Tuhuti A, Zhao H, et al. Low Serum Vitamin D Is Associated with Anti-Thyroid-Globulin Antibody in Female Individuals. Int J Endocrinol. 2015; 2015:1â€“6. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/285290
Kivity S, Agmon-Levin N, Zisappl M, Shapira Y, Nagy E V, DankÃ³ K, et al. Vitamin D and autoimmune thyroid diseases. Cell Mol Immunol. 2011; 8(3):243â€“7. https://doi.org/10.1038/cmi.2010.73 PMid:21278761 PMCid:PMC4012880
Di Rosa M, Malaguarnera M, Nicoletti F, Malaguarnera L. Vitamin D3: a helpful immuno-modulator. Immunology. 2011; 134(2):123â€“39. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2567.2011.03482.x PMid:21896008 PMCid:PMC3194221
Penna-Martinez M, Ramos-Lopez E, Stern J, Kahles H, Hinsch N, Hansmann M-L, et al. Impaired Vitamin D Activation and Association with CYP24A1 Haplotypes in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma. Thyroid. 2012; 22(7):709â€“16. https://doi.org/10.1089/thy.2011.0330 PMid:22690899 PMCid:PMC3387756
KÃ¼Ã§Ã¼kler Fk, ÅžimÅŸek Y, GÃ¶rkem Ãœ, AyÃ§iÃ§ek DoÄŸan B, GÃ¼ler S. Relationship between gestational transient thyrotoxicosis and vitamin D. TURKISH J Med Sci. 2016; 46:1374â€“8. https://doi.org/10.3906/sag-1507-33 PMid:27966300
Yasuda T, Okamoto Y, Hamada N, Miyashita K, Takahara M, Sakamoto F, et al. Serum vitamin D levels are decreased and associated with thyroid volume in female patients with newly onset Graves' disease. Endocrine. 2012; 42(3):739â€“41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-012-9679-y PMid:22547366 PMCid:PMC3509322
Hashizume K, Suzuki S, Ichikawa K, Takeda T, Kobayashi M Effect of active vitamin D3 on the levels of NADPH-dependent cytosolic 3,5,3â€²-triiodo-L-thyronine-binding protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991; 177(1):388â€“94. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291X(91)91995-O
Sar M, Stumpf WE, DeLuca HF. Thyrotropes in the pituitary are target cells for 1,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3. Cell Tissue Res. 1980; 209(1):161â€“6. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00219932 PMid:7000361
How to Cite
All rights reserved.