The Alcmaeon’s School of Croton: Philosophy and Science


  • Luigi Santacroce Microbiology & Virology Lab - Policlinico of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Polypheno Academic Spin Off - University of Bari, Bari, Italy
  • Ioannis Alexandros Charitos Emergency Service, Ospedali Riuniti, Foggia, Italy
  • Skender Topi Faculty of Technical Medical Sciences, “Alexander Xhuvani” University of Elbasan, Elbasan, Albania
  • Lucrezia Bottalico Polypheno Academic Spin Off - University of Bari, Bari, Italy



Pre-Hippocratic medicine, Pithagorism, Encephalocentric theory, Human development, Empirical research


Among the first physicians and physiologists at the pre-Hippocratic medicine with contradictions and oscillating doctrines was Alcmaeon from Croton in the 6th century BC. For many, he shared as the father of scientific medicine. Unfortunately, we have only eighteen texts written for him and only five fragments of texts written by him. This saved extracts and testimonies they refer mostly to physiology, epistemology and psychology. Was born in the city of Croton (ΚÏότων) in Magna Graecia (southern Italy) was a reference point for the activity of physicians and philosophers over the years. Furthermore, Herodotus tells us about the excellent practice quality of the physicians, “compared to all the others known in that periodâ€, among which Alcmaeon. But Croton is also famous as the centre of thought and activity of the philosopher Pythagoras of Samos (ΠυθαγόÏας ὠΣάμιος, 580-500 BC) through his Pythagorean school around 530 BC.


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How to Cite

Santacroce L, Charitos IA, Topi S, Bottalico L. The Alcmaeon’s School of Croton: Philosophy and Science. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2019 Jan. 30 [cited 2024 Jun. 17];7(3):500-3. Available from:



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