Screening of Anxiety and Depression Related CD4 Count of People Living with HIV/AIDS with Anti-Retroviral in Medan, Indonesia

Authors

  • Dona Farila Agus Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Elmeida Effendy Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia
  • Vita Camellia Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.396

Keywords:

CD4, Anxiety, Depression

Abstract

BACKGROUND: HIV, which causes AIDS, infects the immune system cells, by destroying or damaging the function of the CD4. PLWHA will have twice the risk of experiencing mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety compared with the general population, thereby suppressing immune function, decreasing their quality of life, decreasing the level of adherence to treatment, and contributing significantly to the occurrence of premature death.

AIM: To determine the correlation Anxiety and Depression symptoms and CD4 levels in PLWHA who are undergoing Anti-Retroviral treatment at the HIV/AIDS

METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional study, which assesses the correlation between Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores (HADS) and CD4 levels in PLWHA who are receiving ARV in the HIV/AIDS Special Services Polyclinic Medan Haji general hospital.

RESULTS: It was found that the average HADS-A score, PLWHA was 15.286 and the SD ± 2.244. This shows that PLWHA is in moderate to severe anxiety and moderate to severe depression. The mean CD4 level of people with HIV/AIDS/PLWHA was 288.171 and SD ± 88.955. According to WHO criteria, regarding the classification of HIV immunodeficiency in adults, are classified as moderate immunodeficiency. There was a significant correlation between the HADS-A score and CD4 level with a correlation value of r = -0.592 indicating a negative correlation with a moderate correlation strength, and the correlation between HADS-D score and CD4 level. The strength of the relationship between HADS-D score and CD4 level is r = -0.650, shows a negative correlation with strong correlation strength.

CONCLUSION: from this study, it was found that there is a relationship between depression and anxiety symptom and CD4 level.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

References

Association of Indonesian Internal Medicine Specialists. Internal medicine textbook. Edition 6. Jakarta, 2014:899-931.

World Health Organization. HIV Prevention, Diagnosis, Treatment and Care for Key Population, 2016:1-12.

Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Regulation of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Indonesia Number 87 of 2014 concerning Guidelines for Antiretroviral Treatment. Jakarta, 2014:7-46

Lawler K, Mosepele M, Seloilwe E, Ratcliffe S, Steele K, Nthobatsang R, Steenhoff A. Depression among HIV-positive individuals in Botswana: a behavioral surveillance. AIDS and Behavior. 2011; 15(1):204-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-009-9622-2 PMid:19821023 PMCid:PMC6200421

Mini International Neuropsychiatry Interview (Version MINI ICD 10), WHO.

Camellia V. Mental health problem in HIV/AIDS patients. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. IOP Publishing, 2018; 125(1):012186. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/125/1/012186

Rini G, Elmeida E, et al. Differences in Symptom Levels of Anxiety and Depression between Commercial Sex Workers who Have HIV/AIDS and those Who Don't Have HIV/AIDS. Jurnalmka fk unand. 2014:198-204.

Maria G, Rosangela C, et al. Depression in HIV Infected Patients: a Review. Complex Medical-Psychiatric Issues. Psychiatric Cur Rep New York. 2015:3-11.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Association. Fifth Ed., 2013:155-188; 189-234.

Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P. Generalized anxiety disorder. In Kaplan & sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry behavioral sciences/Clinical Psychiatry. 11 th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015:880-92.

Zigmond AS, Snaith Rp. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Acta Psychiatry Scand. 1983; 67:361-370. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1983.tb09716.x PMid:6880820

Snaith Rp. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Health and Quality Outcomes. 2003; 1:1-4. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7525-1-1 PMCid:PMC149816

Kitshoff C, Naidoo SS. The association between depression and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Family Practice. 2012;54(2):145-150. https://doi.org/10.1080/20786204.2012.10874194

Tasman A, Kay J, Lieberman JA, First MB, Riba MB. Psychiatry, 4 years. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2015. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118753378

Stern AF. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Occupational Medicine. Oxford University. 2014; 64:393-94. https://doi.org/10.1093/occmed/kqu024 PMid:25005549

Dahlan MS. Statistics for medicine and health. Epidemiology, Indonesia, Jakarta. 2014:223-244.

Direktorat General of P2P P2P Ministry of Health. Situation and Analysis of HIV/AIDS. Infodatin. 2014:1-6.

Direktorat General of P2P Ministry of Health RI. Report on the Situation of the Development of HIV-AIDS & PIMS in Indonesia. Jakarta. 2017:2-21.

Getachew tesfaw, et al. Prevalence and correlates of depression and anxiety among patients with HIV on Alert Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 2016:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-1037-9 PMid:27806711 PMCid:PMC5094082

Saragih J. Depressive Syndrome in HIV/AIDS sufferers in Haji Adam Malik General Hospital Medan. Thesis. Medan: Faculty of Medicine, University of North Sumatra, 2008.

Ramovha R, et al. The Psychological Experience of HIV and AIDS by New Diagnosed Infected Patients at Hospital A of Vhembe District, Limpopo Province. Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research. 2012:1-6. https://doi.org/10.4172/2155-6113.S1-006

Caballero-Suárez NP, Rodríguez-Estrada E, Candela-Iglesias M, Reyes-Terán G. Comparison of levels of anxiety and depression between women and men living with HIV of a Mexico City clinic. Salud mental. 2017; 40(1):15-21. https://doi.org/10.17711/SM.0185-3325.2017.003

Betancur MN, Lins L, Oliveira IR, Brites C. Quality of life, anxiety and depression in patients with HIV/AIDS who present poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy: a cross-sectional study in Salvador, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2017; 21(5):507-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bjid.2017.04.004 PMid:28535397

Published

2019-08-20

How to Cite

1.
Agus DF, Effendy E, Camellia V. Screening of Anxiety and Depression Related CD4 Count of People Living with HIV/AIDS with Anti-Retroviral in Medan, Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2019 Aug. 20 [cited 2024 Jun. 17];7(16):2590-4. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/oamjms.2019.396

Issue

Section

Neuroscience, Neurology, and Psychiatry

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 > >>