Sociological and Psychological Factors on Prohibited Substances Abuse in Rehabilitation Centre of Medan City, Indonesia

Authors

  • Vita Camellia Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • Fasihah Irfani Fitri Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • Muhammad Surya Husada Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • Dudy Aldiansyah Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • Muhammad Ichwan Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • Khairunnisa Khairunnisa Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia
  • Farah Diba Harahap Department of Health, STIKES Nurliana, Medan 20237, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.611

Keywords:

Social and Psychological Factor, Prohibited Substances, Rehabilitation

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Prohibited substances issue and their abuse have become a scourge for people in Indonesia. This situation creates concern for every level of society since this is very influential to damage and can even eliminate generations at a later time.

AIM: This study aims to determine the characteristics of age, education, psychological and social problems related to substance dependence experienced by individuals with substance disorders who undergo rehabilitation in Medan, Indonesia.

METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional analytic, in which the sample of this study was individuals who underwent rehabilitation in the Rehabilitation Center in Medan City who fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A structured interview was carried out with the MINI ICD-10 on part M. disorders related to psychoactive substances. Furthermore, to see the level of dependence, WHO ASSIST questionnaire (The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test) was used.

RESULTS: This study discovered that subjects with age above 21 years were the most dominant of the prohibited substance users group as many as 87 people (69%), Batak tribe with 73 people (57.9%), residence originating from outside the city with 70 people (55.6%), Unmarried with 87 people (70.2%), education level is medium (junior high school) with 117 people (92.9%) and work as many as 77 people (61.1%). The study also found that the most dominant number of prohibited substances users were single users of methamphetamine and a combination of two substances, each of which was 49 people (38.9%). There is no relationship between social factors and patterns of prohibited substance use. Also, the most dominant users of prohibited substances who undergo rehabilitation are those based on family and police (involuntary admission). Finally, as many as 70 people used methamphetamine require intensive intervention.

CONCLUSION: This study shows that social and demographic factors are not related to the pattern of prohibited substance use.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

References

Partodiharjo S. Kenali narkoba dan musuhi penyalahgunaannya. Jakarta: Penerbit Esensi, 2008.

Perka BNN. RI Nomor 2 Tahun 2011 tentang Tata Cara Penanganan Tersangka atau Terdakwa Penyalah Guna, Korban Penyalahgunaan, dan Pecandu Narkotika, 2011.

Undang-Undang Nomor 35 Tahun 2009 tentang Narkotika (Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 2009 Nomor 143. Tambahan Lembaran Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun, 2009 Nomor 5062, selanjutnya disebut UU Narkotika.

Berg CJ, Schauer GL. Results of a feasibility and acceptability trial of an online smoking cessation program targeting young adult nondaily smokers. Journal of Environmental and Public Health. 2012; 2012:248541. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/248541 PMid:22570666 PMCid:PMC3335250

Bronars CA, Faseru B, Krebill R, Mayo MS, Snow TM, Okuyemi KS, Cox LS, et al. Examining smoking dependence motives among African American light smokers. Journal of Smoking Cessation. 2014:1-8. https://doi.org/10.1017/jsc.2014.7 PMid:26557184 PMCid:PMC4635476

Piper ME, Piasecki TM, Federman EB, Bolt DM, Smith SS, Fiore MC, Baker TB. A multiple motives approach to tobacco dependence: The Wisconsin inventory of smoking dependence motives (WISDM-68). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 2004; 72(2):139-154. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.72.2.139 PMid:15065950

Teeson M, Mewton L. Epidemiology of Addiction. In Galanter M, Kleber HD, Brady KT Eds. Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment. Washington DC. American Psychiatric Publishing, 2015:47-57. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9781615370030.mg03

Chang GC, et. Treatment approaches. In: Lowinson JH, Ruiz P, Millman RB, Langrod JG, eds. Substance abuse a comprehensive textbook. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2015:579-804.

Depkes RI 2002. Modul Pelatihan teknis medis penanggulangan penyalahgunaan NAPZA.Depkes Dirjen Bina Kesehatan Masyarakat .Jakarta

Reitzel LR, Costello TJ, Mazas CA, Vidrine JI, Businelle MS, Kendzor DE, Wetter DW, et al. Low-level smoking among Spanish-speaking Latino smokers: Relationships with demographics, tobacco dependence, withdrawal, and cessation. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2009; 11(2):178-184. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntn021 PMid:19246627 PMCid:PMC2658909

Galanter M, Kleber HD, Brady K, editors. The American Psychiatric Publishing textbook of substance abuse treatment. American Psychiatric Pub, 2014. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9781615370030

Rawson RA. Current research on the epidemiology, medical and psychiatric effect, and treatment of mehtamphetamin use. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis. 2013; 21:77-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfda.2013.09.039 PMid:25214749 PMCid:PMC4158843

Sattah MV, Supawitkul S, Dondero TJ, Kilmax PH, Young NL, et al. Prevalence of and risk factors for methamphetamine use in northern Thai youth: results of an audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing survey with urine testing. Addiction. 2002; 97(7):801-808. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00131.x PMid:12133118

Shiffman S, Dunbar MS, Scholl SM, Tindle HA. Smoking motives of daily and non-daily smokers: A profile analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2012; 126(3):362-368. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.05.037 PMid:22784601 PMCid:PMC3970262

Shiffman S, Ferguson SG, Dunbar MS, Scholl SM. Tobacco dependence among intermittent smokers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2012; 14(11):1372-1381. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nts097 PMid:22529224 PMCid:PMC3482012

Smith SS, Piper ME, Bolt DM, Fiore MC, Wetter DW, Cinciripini PM, Baker TB. Development of the brief Wisconsin inventory of smoking dependence motives. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2010; 12(5):489-499. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntq032 PMid:20231242 PMCid:PMC2861888

Scheuermann TS, Nollen NL, Cox LS, Reitzel LR, Berg CJ, et al. Smoking dependence acros the levels of cigarette smoking in a multiethnic sample. Addictive Behaviors. 2015; 43:1-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.11.017 PMid:25498030 PMCid:PMC4305016

Myers MG, Kelly JF. Cigarette smoking among adolescents with alcohol and other drug use problems. Alcohol Research Health. 2006; 29(3):221-227.

Opsal A, Kristensen O, Larsen TK, Syversen Gro, Rudshaug BEA, Gerdner A, Clausen T. Factors associated with involuntary admissions among patients with substance use disorders and comorbidity: a cross-sectional study, BMC Health Services Research. 2013; 13:57. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-13-57 PMid:23399599 PMCid:PMC3575229

World Health Organization. Clinical Guideline for withdrawal management and treatment of drug dependence in closed settings, 2009.

Humeniuk R, Henry-Edwards S, Ali R, Poznyak V, Monteiro MG, World Health Organization. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): manual for use in primary care.

Hayatbakhsh MR, Najman JM, Bor W, Williams GM. Predictors of young adults' amphetamine use and disorders: A prospective study. Drug and Alcohol Review. 2009; 28(3):275-83. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00032.x PMid:21462412

Published

2019-10-14

How to Cite

1.
Camellia V, Fitri FI, Husada MS, Aldiansyah D, Ichwan M, Khairunnisa K, Harahap FD. Sociological and Psychological Factors on Prohibited Substances Abuse in Rehabilitation Centre of Medan City, Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2019 Oct. 14 [cited 2024 Apr. 21];7(23):4137-42. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/oamjms.2019.611

Issue

Section

E - Public Health

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 > >>