Glutathione Transferase as a Potential Marker for Gut Epithelial Injury versus the Protective Role of Breast Milk sIgA in Infants with Rota Virus Gastroenteritis


  • Lobna S. Sherif National Research Centre, Department of Child Health, Giza
  • Randaa K. Abdel Raouf Institute of Postgraduate Childhood Studies - Department of Medical Studies, Cairo
  • Rokaya M. El Sayede Kasralainy Cairo University - Pеdiatric, Cairo
  • Amany S. El Wakkadd National Research Centre, Medical Physiology, Cairo
  • Ashraf R. Shoaib Department of Medical Studies, Institute of Postgraduate Childhood Studies, Ain Shams University, Cairo
  • Hanan M. Ali Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo
  • Amira S. El Refay National Research Centre, Department of Child Health, Giza



viral gastroenteritis, Rota virus, glutathione transferase, secretory IgA, infants


BACKGROUND: Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) plays an important protective role in the recognition and clearance of enteric pathogens.

AIM: This study was designed to assess if mucosal integrity “measured by secretory IgA (SIgA)†is a protective factor from more epithelial alteration “measured by glutathione transferase†in infants with Rota gastroenteritis and its relation to infantsꞌ feeding pattern.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 79 infants aged 6 months and less from those diagnosed as having gastroenteritis and admitted to Gastroenteritis Department in Abo El Rish Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University. Plasma glutathione s-transferases and Stool SIgA were measured using ELISA technique. Rota virus detection was done by Reverse transcriptase PCR.

RESULTS: SIgA was found to be significantly positive in exclusive breast fed infants, Glutathione transferase was significantly more frequently positive in Rota positive cases than Rota negative cases by Reverse transcriptase PCR. A significant negative correlation between Glutathione transferase and Secretory IgA was found, (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Breast feeding should be encouraged and highly recommended in the first two years of life as it provides Secretory IgA to breast fed infants who in turn protect them against epithelial damage caused by Rota viral gastroenteritis.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block


Parashar UD, Hummelman EG, Bresee JS, Miller MA and Glass RI. Global illness and deaths caused by rotavirus disease in children. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9(5):565-72.


Kapikian AZ. A rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe diarrhoea of infants and young children: development, utilization and withdrawal Novartis Found Symp. 2001;238:153-71; discussion 171-9.


Holmgren J, Czerkinsky C. Mucosal immunity and vaccines. Nat Med. 2005;11(4 Suppl):S45-53.


Fagarasan S, Honjo T. Intestinal IgA synthesis: regulation of front-line body defences. Nat Rev Immunol. 2003;3(1):63-72.


Brandtzaeg P. Development, regulation and function of secretory immunity.In: Delvin E, Lentze MJ (eds) Gastrointestinal Functions. Vevey/Lippincott Williams& Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2001:pp 91–114.

Van Itallie CM, Anderson JM. The molecular physiology of tight junction pores. Physiology (Bethesda). 2004;19:331–338.


Brandtzaeg P. Development of the mucosal immune system in humans. In: Bindels JG, Goedhart AC, Visser HKA, editors. Recent developments in infant nutrition. London: Kluwer Academic Publishersp. 1996;349–76.

Brandtzaeg P. Current understanding of gastrointestinal immunoregulation and its relation to food allergy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002;964:13–45.


Duc M, Johansen FE, Corthésy B. Antigen binding to secretory immunoglobulin A results in decreased sensitivity to intestinal proteases and increased binding to cellular Fc receptors. J Biol Chem. 2010;285(2):953-60.

PMid:19910466 PMCid:PMC2801296

Phalipon A, Cardona A, Kraehenbuhl JP, Edelman L, Sansonetti PJ and Corthésy B. Secretory component: a new role in secretory IgA-mediated immune exclusion in vivo. Immunity. 2002;17(1):107-15.

Elnady HG, Sherif LS, Saleh MT, El-Alameey IR, Youssef MM, El Shafie AI, Helwa I, Abdel Raouf H, EL-Taweel AN. Prediction of Gut Wall Integrity Loss in Viral Gastroenteritis by Non-Invasive Marker. OA Maced J Med Sci. 2015 Mar 15; 3(1):37-45.

Kelly N, Friend K, Boyle P, Zhang XR, Wong C, Hackam DJ, Zamora R, Ford HR, Upperman JS. The role of the glutathione antioxidant system in gut barrier failure in a rodent model of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. Surgery. 2004;136(3):557-66.


WHO. Diarrhoea, Health topics, 2009. Available at

WHO. Exclusive breastfeeding for six months best for babies everywhere, 15 January 2011 Statement, 2011. Available at

King CK, Glass R, Bresee JS and Duggan C. Managing acute gastroenteritis among children: oral rehydration, maintenance, and nutritional therapy. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003;52(RR-16):1-16.


Esona MD, Gautam R, Tam KI, Williams A, Mijatovic-Rustempasic S, Bowen MD. Multiplexed one-step RT-PCR VP7 and VP4 genotyping assays for rotaviruses using updated primers. J Virol Methods. 2015;223:96-104.


Hofman L, Le T. Preliminary pediatric reference range for secretory IgA in saliva using an enzyme immunoassay. Clinical Chemistry. 2002;48(6, Supplement),:A169-70.

Habig W, Pabst M, Jakoby WB. Glutathione transferse; The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J Biol Chem. 1974;249:7130-7130.


Nagler-Anderson C. Man the barrier! Strategic defences in the intestinal mucosa. Nat Rev Immunol. 2001;1(1):59-67.


Macpherson AJ, Lamarre A, McCoy K, Harriman GR, Odermatt B, Dougan G, Hengartner H, Zinkernagel RM. IgA production without mu or delta chain expression in developing B cells. Nat Immunol. 2001;2(7):625-31.


Prameela K and Mohamed A. Breast Milk Immunoprotection and the Common Mucosal Immune System: a Review. Mal J Nutr. 2010;16(1):1–11.


roer M, Davis M, Steele K. Associations between human milk SIgA and maternal immune, infectious, endocrine, and stress variables. J Hum Lact. 2004;20(2):153-8; quiz 159-63.


McMonagle MP, Halpenny M, McCarthy A, Mortell A, Manning F, Kilty C, Mannion D, Wood AE and Corbally MT. Alpha glutathione S-transferase: a potential marker of ischemia-reperfusion injury of the intestine after cardiac surgery? J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:1526-1531.


Norderhaug IN, Johansen F-E, Schjerven H and Brandtzaeg P. Regulation of the formation and external transport of secretory immunoglobulins. Crit Rev Immunol. 1999;19:481–508.


Newberg D, Walker A. Immune System of Developing Gut and of Human Milk. Nutr. 2007;105:356–363.



How to Cite

Sherif LS, Abdel Raouf RK, El Sayede RM, El Wakkadd AS, Shoaib AR, Ali HM, El Refay AS. Glutathione Transferase as a Potential Marker for Gut Epithelial Injury versus the Protective Role of Breast Milk sIgA in Infants with Rota Virus Gastroenteritis. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2015 Nov. 26 [cited 2022 Aug. 15];3(4):676-80. Available from:



B - Clinical Sciences

Most read articles by the same author(s)