Low Maternal Vitamin D and Calcium Food Intake during Pregnancy Associated with Place of Residence: A Cross-Sectional Study in West Sumatran Women, Indonesia
Keywords:vitamin D intake, calcium intake, pregnancy, place of residence, west sumatra
BACKGROUND: There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy worldwide, and variable availability of vitamin D-rich foods may affect the adequacy of vitamin D food intake in different regions.
AIM: We analysed the relationship between place of residence and maternal food intake of vitamin D and calcium in West Sumatra, Indonesia.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 203 pregnant women. Data collection was carried out in four districts in West Sumatra â€“ two in coastal locations and two in mountainous locations â€“ with subjects divided into groups based on their place of residence. The dietary intakes of pregnant women were assessed through a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (SQ-FFQ).
RESULTS: The means of maternal vitamin D and calcium food intake were 7.92 Â± 5.26 Âµg/day and 784.88 Â± 409.77 mg/day, respectively. There were no reports of vitamin D supplement intake during pregnancy. A total of 86.7% and 89.7% of the study subjects had low vitamin D and calcium food intake status, respectively. There was a significant association between maternal vitamin D intake and place of residence (p = 0.02) and significant different mean levels of vitamin D food intake with the place of residence (9.04 vs 6.55 Âµg/day; p = 0.01). Mothers who had higher education levels had adequate calcium food intake (p = 0.015; OR: 0.295; 0.116â€“0.751).
CONCLUSION: Low maternal vitamin D and calcium food intake were found to be common in West Sumatra, Indonesia and their differed between those residents in mountainous and in coastal areas.
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Copyright (c) 2019 Arif Sabta Aji, Eti Yerizel, Desmawati Desmawati, Nur Indrawaty Lipoeto (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.