Hepatoprotective Activity and Nephroprotective Activity of Peel Extract from Three Varieties of the Passion Fruit (Passiflora Sp.) in the Albino Rat

Authors

  • Nerdy Nerdy Department of Pharmacy, Academy of Pharmacy Yayasan Tenaga Pembangunan Arjuna, Pintubosi, Laguboti, Toba Samosir, Sumatera Utara, 22381, Indonesia http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1993-4415
  • Kiking Ritarwan Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Sumatera Utara, Padang Bulan, Medan Baru, Medan, Sumatera Utara, 20155, Indonesia

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2019.153

Keywords:

Hepatoprotective, Nephroprotective, Passion Fruit, Biochemical Analysis

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The Passion Fruit (Passiflora sp.) that grows in the Indonesian region generally has three varieties, namely purple passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims.), red passion fruit (Passiflora ligularis Juss.), and yellow passion fruit (Passiflora verrucifera Lindl.). The passion fruit peel is an economic waste that has not been utilised optimally, but has many efficacious phytochemical contents.

AIM: The objectives of this research are to examine scientifically hepatoprotective activity (with paracetamol-induced hepatotoxic) and nephroprotective activity (with gentamicin-induced nephrotoxic) from three varieties of the passion fruit (purple passion fruit peel extract, red passion fruit peel extract and yellow passion fruit peel extract) in the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus).

METHODS: Three varieties of passion fruit peels were extracted by maceration method. The experimental animals used were the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus). Hepatoprotective activity was done by the liver biochemical (alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase) analysis with paracetamol (hepatotoxic compound) induced after 10 days of treatment with extract. Nephroprotective activity was done by the kidney biochemical (urea and creatinine) analysis with gentamicin (nephrotoxic compound) induced after 10 days of treatment with extract.

RESULTS: The hepatoprotective activity for positive control was similar to the 250 mg of purple passion fruit peel extract per kg of body weight, 250 mg of red passion fruit peel extract per kg of body weight, and 500 mg of yellow passion fruit peel extract per kg of body weight. The nephroprotective activity for positive control (50 mg of silymarin per kg of body weight) was similar to the 250 mg of purple passion fruit peel extract per kg of body weight, 500 mg of red passion fruit peel extract per kg of body weight, and 500 mg of yellow passion fruit peel extract per kg of body weight.

CONCLUSIONS: The extracts were shown hepatoprotective activity and nephroprotective activity with a dose-dependent activity. The hepatoprotective activity and nephroprotective activity of purple passion fruit peel extract were the best compared to red passion fruit peel extract and yellow passion fruit peel extract.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...

Plum Analytics Artifact Widget Block

References

Ozougwu J. Physiology of the Liver. International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biosciences. 2017; 4(8):13-24.

Hoenig MP, Zeidel ML. Renal Physiology Homeostasis, the Milieu Interieur, and the Wisdom of the Nephron. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 2014; 9:1-13. https://doi.org/10.2215/CJN.08860813 PMid:24789550 PMCid:PMC4078957

Ramachandran A, and Jaeschke H. Mechanisms of Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity and their Translation to the Human Pathophysiology. Journal of Clinical and Translational Research. 2017; 3(S1):157-69. https://doi.org/10.18053/jctres.03.2017S1.002

Feng D, Wang Y, Wang H, Weng H, Kong X, Martin-Murphy BV, Li Y, Park O, Dooley S, Ju C, and Gao B. Acute and Chronic Effects of IL-22 on Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury. Journal of Immunology. 2014; 193:2512-8. https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1400588 PMid:25063867 PMCid:PMC4135042

Srivastava P, Rao RR, Shenoy PJ, Manjrekar PA, Teerthanath S, Bhuvaneshwari S. Nephroprotective Effect of Anethum graveolens in a Murine Model of Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity. Journal of Young Pharmacists. 2018; 10(2):155-8. https://doi.org/10.5530/jyp.2018.10.35

Aiswarya N, Rashmi RR, Preethi JS, Chandran V, Teerthanath S, Sunil PB, and Rakesh KB. Nephroprotective Effect of Aqueous Extract of Pimpinella anisum in Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2018; 10(3):403-7. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2018.3.66

de Toledo NMV, de Camargo AC, Ramos PBM, Button DC, Granato D, and Canniatti-Brazaca SG. Potentials and Pitfalls on the Use of Passion Fruit by Products in Drinkable Yogurt - Physicochemical, Technological, Microbiological, and Sensory Aspects. Beverages. 2018; 4(47):1-15. https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4030047

Karsinah K, Hutabarat RC, and Manshur A. Passion Fruit Acid (Passiflora edulis Sims) Exotic Fruit Rich in Benefits. Iptek Hortikultura. 2010; (6):30-35.

Marpaung AE, Karsinah K, and Br Karo B. Characterization and Evaluation of Passion Fruit Acid Hybrid from Purple and Red Passion Fruit Acid (Passiflora sp.). Journal Hortikultura. 2016; (26)2:163-70. https://doi.org/10.21082/jhort.v26n2.2016.p163-170

Thokchom R, and Mandal G. Production Preference and Importance of Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis). Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Food Technology. 2017; 4(1):27-30.

Anurangi CR, and Shamina S. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Acute & Subacutetoxicity Study on Different Concentrations of Unripen Fruit Peel Flour of Passiflora edulis in Male Albino Rats. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 7(3):828-34.

Sihombing JR, Dharma A, Chaidir Z, Almahdy A, Fachrial E, and Munaf E. Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activities of 31 Fruit Peel Extract from Sumatera, Indonesia. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2015; 7(11):190-6.

Wasagu RSU, Lawal M, Amedu AM, Sabir AA, Kabir S, Tukur UG, and Zaharadeen A. Comparative Chemical Analysis, Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activities of the Rinds, Seeds and Juice of (Passiflora edulis var. Flavicarpa) Passion Fruit. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 2016; 6(19):138-43.

Wong YS, Sia CH, Khoo HE, Ang YK, Chang SK, and Yim HS. Influence of Extraction Conditions on Antioxidant Properties of Passion Fruit (Passiflora edulis) Peel. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria. 2014; 13(3):257-65. https://doi.org/10.17306/J.AFS.2014.3.4 PMid:24887941

Lima DS, Duarte NBA, Barreto DLC, de Oliveira GP, Takahashi JA, Fabrini SP, and Sande D. Passion Fruit and Apple - from Residues to Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and Anti-Alzheimer's Potential. Ciência Rural Santa Maria. 2018; 48(9):e20180076. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-8478cr20180076

Ramaiya SD, Bujang JS, and Zakaria MH. Assessment of Total Phenolic, Antioxidant, and Antibacterial Activities of Passiflora Species. The Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014:ID167309.

Doungue HT, Kengne APN, and Kuate D. Neuroprotective Effect and Antioxidant Activity of Passiflora edulis Fruit Flavonoid Fraction, Aqueous Extract, and Juice in Aluminum Chloride Induced Alzheimer's Disease Rats. Nutrire. 2018; 43:23-34. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41110-018-0082-1

Raju IN, Reddy KK, Kumari CK, Reddy EB, Rao SD, Reddy CD, and Watson RR. Efficacy of Purple Passion Fruit Peel Extract in Lowering Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetic Subjects. Journal of Evidence Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2013; 18(3):183-90. https://doi.org/10.1177/2156587213475627

Cazarin CBB, da Silva JK, Colomeu TC, Batista AG, Vilella CA, Ferreira AL, Bogusz Junior S, Fukuda K, Augusto F, de Meirelles LR, de L Zollner E, and Marostica Junior MR. Passiflora edulis Peel Intake and Ulcerative Colitis - Approaches for Prevention and Treatment. Experimental Biology and Medicine. 2014; 239:542-51. https://doi.org/10.1177/1535370214525306 PMid:24623393

Farid R, Rezaieyazdi Z, Mirfeizi Z, Hatef MR, Mirheidari M, Mansouri H, Esmaelli H, Bentley G, Lu Y, Foo Y, Watson RR. Oral Intake of Purple Passion Fruit Peel Extract Reduces Pain and Stiffness and Improves Physical Function in Adult Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis. Nutrition Research. 2010; 30(9):601-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2010.08.010 PMid:20934601

Silva DC, Freitas ALP, Pessoa CDS, Paula RCM, Mesquita JX, Leal LKAM. Brito GAC, Gonçalves DO, and Viana GSB. Pectin from Passiflora edulis Shows Antiinflammatory Action as well as Hypoglycemic and Hypotriglyceridemic Properties in Diabetic Rats. Journal of Medicinal Food. 2011; 14(10):1118-26. https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2010.0220 PMid:21554121

Anusooriya P, Malarvizhi D, Gopalakrishnan VK, and Devaki K. Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Effect of Aqueous Fruit Extract of Passiflora ligularis Juss. on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. International Scholarly Research Notices. 2014; 2014:ID130342.

Srivastava R, and Srivastava P. Hepatotoxicity and the Role of Some Herbal Hepatoprotective Plants in Present Scenario. Global Journal of Digestive Diseases. 2018; 3(2):1-4. https://doi.org/10.4172/2472-1891.100034

Torres-González L, Cienfuegos-Pecina E, Perales-Quintana MM, Alarcon-Galvan G, Mu-oz-Espinosa LE, Pérez-Rodríguez E, Cordero-Pérez P. Nephroprotective Effect of Sonchus oleraceus Extract against Kidney Injury Induced by Ischemia Reperfusion in Wistar Rats. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2018; 2018:ID9572803.

Irawan C, Foliatini F, Hanafi H, Sulistiawaty L, Sukiman M. Volatile Compound Analysis Using GC-MS, Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant Activities of the Husk of "Julang-Jaling" (Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I.C Nielsen) from Lampung, Indonesia. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2018; 10(1):92-8. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2018.1.17

Zhang QW, Lin LG, and Ye WC. Techniques for Extraction and Isolation of Natural Products - a Comprehensive Review. Chinese Medicine. 2018; 13:20-45. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13020-018-0177-x PMid:29692864 PMCid:PMC5905184

Abdel-Hady H, El-Sayed M, Abdel-Hady AA, Hashash MM, Abdel-Hady AM, Aboushousha T, Abdel-Hameed ES, Abdel-Lateef EE, and Morsi EA. Nephroprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Lantana camara and Squash (Cucurbita pepo) on Cisplatin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats and Identification of Certain Chemical Constituents of Lantana camara by HPLC-ESI-MS. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2018; 10(1):136-47. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2018.1.24

Fatima N, and Sultana A. Renoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Coleus forskohlii against Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Albino Wistar Rats. Acta Pharmaceutica Sciencia. 2018; 56(2):67-84. https://doi.org/10.23893/1307-2080.APS.05612

Tung BT, Hai NT, and Son PK. Hepatoprotective Effect of Phytosome Curcumin against Paracetamol Induced Liver Toxicity in Mice. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017; 53(1):e16136. https://doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902017000116136

Okokon JE, Simeon JO, and Umoh EE. Hepatoprotective Activity of the Extract of Homalium letestui Stem against Paracetamol Induced Liver Injury. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine. 2017; 7(1):27-36. PMid:28265544 PMCid:PMC5329174

Thuwaini MM, Abdul-Mounther M, and Kadhem HS. Hepatoprotective Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) against Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Rats. European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research. 2016; 3(8):36-42.

Deb S, Puthanveetil P, and Sakharkar P. Population Based Cross Sectional Study of the Association between Liver Enzymes and Lipid Levels. International Journal of Hepatology. 2018; 2018:ID1286170.

Ahmed Z, Ahmed U, Walayat S, Ren J, Martin DK, Moole H, Koppe S, Yong S, Dhillon S. Liver Function Tests in Identifying Patients with Liver Disease. Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology. 2018; 11:301-7. https://doi.org/10.2147/CEG.S160537 PMid:30197529 PMCid:PMC6112813

Kim HR, and Han MA. Association between Serum Liver Enzymes and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15:1658-64. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081658 PMid:30081587 PMCid:PMC6121325

Newsome PN, Cramb R, Davison Sm, Dillon JF, Foulerton M, Godfrey EM, Hall R, Harrower U, Hudson M, Langford A, Mackie A, Mitchell-Thain R, Sennett K, Sheron NC, Verne J, Walmsley M, and Yeoman A. Guidelines on the Management of Abnormal Liver Blood Tests. Gut. 2018; 67:6-19. https://doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2017-314924 PMid:29122851 PMCid:PMC5754852

Tvarijonaviciute A, Pardo-Marin L, Tecles F, Carrillo JD, Garcia-Martinez JD, Bernal L, Pastor J, Cerón JJ, and Martinez-Subiela S. Measurement of Urea and Creatinine in Saliva of Dogs - Pilot Study. BMC Veterinary Research. 2018; 14:223-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1546-5 PMid:30029662 PMCid:PMC6053741

Romero-Aroca P, Baget-Bernaldiz M, Navarro-Gil R, Moreno-Ribas A, Valls-Mateu A, Sagarra-Alamo R, Barrot-De La Puente JF, and Mundet-Tuduri X. Glomerular Filtration Rate and/or Ratio of Urine Albumin to Creatinine as Markers for Diabetic Retinopathy - Ten-Year Follow Up Study. Journal of Diabetes Research. 2018; 2018:ID5637130.

Arihan O, Wernly B, Lichtenauer M, Franz M, Kabisch B, Muessig J, Masyuk M, Lauten A, Schulze PC, Hoppe UC, Kelm M, and Jung C. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) is Independently Associated with Mortality in Critically Ill Patients Admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Plos One. 2018; 13(1):e0191697. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191697 PMid:29370259 PMCid:PMC5784990

Lopez-Giacoman S, and Madero M. Biomarkers in Chronic Kidney Disease, from Kidney Function to Kidney Damage. World Journal of Nephrology. 2015; 4(1):57-73. https://doi.org/10.5527/wjn.v4.i1.57 PMid:25664247 PMCid:PMC4317628

Chakraborty M, Bagchi B, Das S. Basu R, and Nandy P. A Dose Dependent Hepatoprotective and Nephroprotective Activity of Eucalyptus Oil on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Mice Model. Clinical Phytoscience International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy. 2018; 4:10-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40816-018-0067-x

Ramaiya SD, Bujang JS, and Zakaria MH. Genetic Diversity in Passiflora Species Assessed by Morphological and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) Sequence Analysis. The Scientific World Journal. 2014; 2014:ID598313.

Şesan TE, Sârbu A, Smarandache D, Oancea F, Oancea A, Savin A, Toma A, Ştefan L, Negru G, Bira AF, Vlăsceanu G, Ghiurea M, Jecu L, Vasilescu G, and Pomohaci CM. Botanical and Phytochemical Approach on Passiflora spp. - New Nutraceutical Crop in Romania. Journal of Plant Development. 2016; 23:97-126.

Sameh S, Al-Sayed E, Labib RM, and Singab AN. Genus Spondias - a Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018; 2018:ID5382904.

Abarca-Vargas R, and Petricevich VL. Bougainvillea Genus - a Review on Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018; 2018:ID9070927.

Abdelhafez OH, Fawzy MA, Fahim JR, Desoukey SY, Krischke M, Mueller MJ, and Abdelmohsen UR. Hepatoprotective Potential of Malvaviscus arboreus against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Liver Injury in Rats. Plos One. 2018; 13(8):e0202362. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0202362 PMid:30138328 PMCid:PMC6107176

Agbafor KN, Ogbanshi ME, and Akubugwo EI. Phytochemical Screening, Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Leaf Extracts of Zapoteca portoricensis. Advances in Biological Chemistry. 2014. 4:35-9. https://doi.org/10.4236/abc.2014.41006

Fan YC, Yue SJ, Guo ZL, Xin LT, Wang CY, Zhao DL, Guan HS, and Wang CY. Phytochemical Composition, Hepatoprotective, and Antioxidant Activities of Phyllodium pulchellum (L.) Desv. Molecules. 2018; 23:1361-75. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules23061361 PMid:29874868 PMCid:PMC6100508

Talluri MR, Gummadi VP, Battu GR. Chemical Composition and Hepatoprotective Activity of Saponaria officinalis on Paracetamol Induced Liver Toxicity in Rats. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2018; 10(6):1196-201. https://doi.org/10.5530/pj.2018.6.205

Rehman S, and Khan H. Advances in Antioxidant Potential of Natural Alkaloids. Current Bioactive Compounds. 2017; 13(2):101-8. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573407212666160614075157

Mohapatra SS, Roy RK, Mohan P, Upadhyaya TN, and Sarma J. Phytochemical Analysis and Hepatoprotective Effect of Hydroethanolic Extract of Stem Bark of Oroxylum indicum. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2018; 7(1):1000-6. https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcmas.2018.701.120

Ahmad F, Al-Subaie AM, Al-Ohali AI, and Mohammed AS. Phytochemical and Nephroprotective Activity of Eclipta prostrata against Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Wistar Rats. International Journal of Pharma Research and Health Sciences. 2018; 6(2):2559-64.

Mahipal P, and Pawar RS. Nephroprotective Effect of Murraya koenigii on Cyclophosphamide Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2017; 10(8):808-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apjtm.2017.08.005 PMid:28942830

Jedage HD, and Manjunath KP. Phytochemical, Pharmacological Evaluation of Morinda pubescens J.E.Sm. Bark Extract for Nephroprotective Activity. Ayu. 2016; 37(3-4):244-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/ayu.AYU_196_15 PMid:29491678 PMCid:PMC5822978

Shah NA, Khan MR, and Nigussie D. Phytochemical Investigation and Nephroprotective Potential of Sida cordata in Rat. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017; 17:388-97. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-017-1896-8 PMid:28778164 PMCid:PMC5545008

Published

2019-02-27

How to Cite

1.
Nerdy N, Ritarwan K. Hepatoprotective Activity and Nephroprotective Activity of Peel Extract from Three Varieties of the Passion Fruit (Passiflora Sp.) in the Albino Rat. Open Access Maced J Med Sci [Internet]. 2019 Feb. 27 [cited 2024 Apr. 21];7(4):536-42. Available from: https://oamjms.eu/index.php/mjms/article/view/oamjms.2019.153

Issue

Section

A - Basic Science

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>